Dr. Ezekiel Emanuel wrote a contrarian opinion piece in the Jan. 8, 2015, issue of the New York Times titled, "Skip Your Annual Physical." Dr. Emanuel is an oncologist at the University of Pennsylvania and was an adviser to the Obama administration regarding the design of health reform. He is also the brother of Rahm Emanuel, a former presidential chief of staff.
As you can guess from the title of the opinion article, Dr. Emanuel believes that annual physicals are not worth having because they do not reduce mortality. He cites a Cochrane Review study to back up his statement. Click here to read a summary of the study by the American Association of Family Practice.
Dr. Emanuel's comments bring the following question to mind: How is one to have the evidence-based screenings recommended by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) without an annual physical?
Here is a list of some of the USPSTF screenings and interventions that studies have shown to be of value by reducing morbidity or mortality that could be accomplished at an annual physical:
- Screening for Type II diabetes
- Screening for hypertension
- Screening for lipid disorders (e.g. high cholesterol)
- Screening and counseling for alcohol abuse
- Screening for cervical cancer every 3-5 years
- Screening for obesity
- Potential use of aspirin for the prevention of heart attack
- Counseling on folate vitamin supplements for all women capable of pregnancy to prevent neural tube defects
- Counseling overweight and obese patients to improve their diet and exercise habits
Many of these conditions are not rare. For example:
- 9.3% of the U.S. population has diabetes-of whom, 9 million are undiagnosed (Click here for ADA source). Assuming a U.S. population of 300 million, 9 million is 3% of the population, so three in 100 screenings would find undiagnosed diabetes. In a company with 1,000 employees, screening for diabetes would result in identifying 30 new cases of diabetes.
- 29% of the adult U.S. population has hypertension-17% are undiagnosed (Click here for CDC source). 17% of 29% is about (again) 3% of the adult U.S. population, so three in 100 screenings would find undiagnosed hypertension. In a company with 1,000 employees, screening for hypertension would result in identifying 30 new cases of hypertension.
An annual physical is a great way to address these nine proven screening tests and interventions that will lengthen life and reduce suffering. This is only a representative sample from the USPSTF. There are actually more than nine. You would not "technically" need an annual physical, but you would have to have some other mechanism for having these screenings and interventions performed. A similar point is made by the American Academy of Family Physicians in its review of the Cochrane study. However, the use of the doctor's office as the setting for the screening means that if an abnormality is found (i.e. diabetes, hypertension, etc.), then the doctor can prescribe an intervention.
To skip an annual physical and to not have the screening performed some other way-and followed up on-is hazardous to your health