Operator errors, driving under the influence, and product defects have long been blamed for catastrophic accidents in the transportation industry. However, recent headlines revealed how cyber risk has emerged as a new and disturbing threat to airlines, railways, auto manufacturers and ocean cargo carriers.
Those in the transportation sector have embraced the “Internet of Things” and transformed what were once far-reaching concepts into some of the most common components of the cars they manufacture and the planes they fly. They often rely on a secure internet connection to function safely and efficiently. Recent headlines, however, raised concern and started a debate: Can the transportation sector be hacked? If so, what are the consequences?
In July 2015, Fiat Chrysler announced a recall of 1.4 million vehicles after white hat hackers demonstrated that they could take control of a Jeep Cherokee's braking systems, change vehicle speed and affect operation of the transmission, air conditioning and radio controls. Hackers gained remote access by exploiting a software vulnerability in the vehicle’s Uconnect entertainment system
The stakes have been raised even higher with recent advances made in the development of driverless cars, as more vehicles will become completely reliant on secure technology. Safety concerns were raised after a series of crashes allegedly caused by the failures of Tesla’s Autopilot technology, resulting in the death of a passenger. This prompted Tesla to announce efforts to improve its Autopilot software, including "advanced processing of radar signals."
See also: How to Measure ‘Vital Signs’ for Cyber Risk
The Department of Transportation has also recognized the risks associated with technology. In January 2016, the department entered into an agreement with 17 major automakers to enhance driver safety, including information sharing to prevent cyberattacks on vehicles. According to the agreement, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration will propose industry guidance for safe operation for fully autonomous vehicles
Boeing recently became the subject of a hacker demonstration when a security researcher accessed the entertainment systems of one of the company's planes in mid-flight. Boeing was adamant that the hacker could not have gained access to the aircraft’s critical functions due to segregation of the two networks. However, the incident raised concerns throughout the airline industry, and an FBI investigation followed
German security researchers SCADA Strangelove demonstrated, without naming the rail systems in question, that they, too, are vulnerable. Their December 2015 report highlighted vulnerabilities related to outdated software, default passwords and lack of authentication. Moreover, entertainment and engineering systems were operating on the same network, leading to speculation that if one system is compromised hackers could gain access to the other. Because rail switches are automated and dependent on properly operating networks, the theory of a system compromise leading to a head-on collision with another train was explored in the report
An investigation by Verizon Risk concluded that modern-day pirates are increasingly relying on network intrusions as a means to carry out crimes on the high seas. Verizon concluded that an unidentified shipping company’s networks were penetrated by hackers, giving them precise information on which ships were carrying the most valuable contents. Hackers then targeted their attacks on specific vessels, using bar codes to focus on individual shipping containers
As of this writing, we have not seen any incidents of bodily injury or loss of life in the transportation sector directly attributed to a deliberate network compromise. Yet the findings of various researchers across multiple transportation sectors lead to some alarming conclusions. Law enforcement and transportation safety regulators have taken these findings seriously and conducted investigations of their own.
We can therefore expect with some degree of certainty that the transportation sector may be held to higher cybersecurity standards and will see increased regulatory scrutiny that has been witnessed in other industries, such as healthcare and financial services. When networks containing sensitive data may be compromised, regulators that oversee that industry often propose protection standards that ultimately become mandates. Failure to comply often leads to lawsuits, settlements, fines and significant reputational harm.
See also: Protecting Institutions From Cyber Risks
Until then, the transportation sector can start by following the best practices as outlined in the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s "A Summary of Cybersecurity Best Practices," published in October 2014 . Key observations and recommendations include:
- Cybersecurity is a life-cycle process that includes elements of assessment, design, implementation and operations as well as an effective testing and certification program.
- The aviation industry has many parallels to the automotive industry in the area of cybersecurity.
- Strong leadership from the federal government could help the development of industry-specific cybersecurity standards, guidelines and best practices.
- Sharing learning with other federal agencies is beneficial.
- Use of the NIST cybersecurity standards as a baseline is a way to accelerate development of industry-specific cybersecurity guidelines.
- International cybersecurity efforts are a key source of information.
- Consider developing a cybersecurity simulator. It could facilitate identification of vulnerabilities and risk mitigation strategies and can be used for collaborative learning (government, academia, private sector, international).
- Cybersecurity standards for the entire supply chain are important.
- Foster industry cybersecurity groups for exchange of cybersecurity information.
- Use professional capacity building to address and develop cybersecurity skill sets, system designers and engineers.
- Connected vehicle security should be end-to-end; vehicles, infrastructure and V2X communication should all be secure.
The transportation sector is yet another industry that must learn to adapt to the systemic nature of cyber risk. Because of ever-increasing reliance on evolving technology, cyber risk will certainly begin to move toward the top of the list of transportation safety concerns. The captains of this industry can no longer claim ignorance to cybersecurity issues or completely delegate responsibility. They owe a duty to safeguard the flow of information that effectively keeps our planes airborne and our cars on the road. Failure to do so could be catastrophic.