Workers’ Comp: Cost of Doing Business - Insurance Thought Leadership



November 21, 2018

Workers’ Comp: Cost of Doing Business


Employers must take a comprehensive approach and view workers’ comp programs in the context of their overall human resource programs.

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Most employers, both large and small, consider workers’ compensation “the cost of doing business.” The vast majority of employers that are not covered under federal regulations such as the Longshore and Harbors Workers Act are 100%-controlled by individual state laws, court systems and dispute resolution procedures. The history dates back to over 100 years ago as the “exclusive remedy” for injuries and illnesses “arising out of, and in, the course of employment.” It was also designed as a “no-fault system.” On paper, it is a simple system to understand. In reality, a simple claim can be a potential landmine and can be lost in a myriad of bureaucratic red tape, attorney involvement and litigation through state court systems.

Although workers’ comp costs are typically viewed as strictly a risk management or safety responsibility, the only way for an employer to truly contain both direct and indirect costs is to take a comprehensive approach and view workers’ comp programs in the context of their overall human resource programs. This requires an integrated, pre-planned, post-injury program design along with clearly defined policies and procedures using tools available under both state workers’ comp laws and federal disability laws. This includes the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA), Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recordkeeping regulations and other potentially specific federal rules and regulations such as medical exams covered under the Department of Transportation (DOT).

See also: The State of Workers’ Compensation  

Two of the most common cost drivers for employers is late reporting of injuries, known as lag time, and poorly designed return-to-work programs. Although both issues involve the core of workers’ comp cost management, neither is really dictated by state workers’ comp law. In fact, state workers’ comp laws and the treating providers working under those laws can be severely detrimental in efforts to improve prompt reporting and return-to-work programs.

Although workers’ comp benefits and systems are strictly governed by state law, the injury or illness is also covered by several federal laws. One of the biggest paradigm shifts in the workers’ comp industry was the result of the Equal Employment Opportunities Commission (EEOC) ruling in 2014 that the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) “applies all the time whenever a medical condition has the potential to significantly disrupt an employee’s work participation.” (See ITL article “Is EEOC an Unlikely Friend on Work Comp,” March 25, 2015)

This EEOC ruling took the workers’ comp industry by surprise. Work-related injuries and illnesses are now clearly governed under federal law under the ADA “as soon as notified,” “all the time” and the process is “continuous.” The EEOC stated the only relevant question is, “whether the disability is now, or is perceived as potentially having an impact on someone’s ability to perform their job, bring home a paycheck and stay employed.” Further, the EEOC stated that the ADA applies, “when a medical condition has the potential to significantly disrupt an employee’s work participation.” What workers’ comp claim does not have the potential to disrupt work participation?

The EEOC went much further and stated that the cause of injury is “irrelevant” and that everyone, treating providers, TPAs and employers, should keep that in mind. Further, the EEOC indicated the employer is 100% responsible for the continuing interactive process regarding potential job accommodations and return-to-work policies under the federal ADA law. The following EEOC comment was the knockout punch: “Physicians and TPAs may be putting employers at risk, even if not properly passed along, and would be especially troublesome if the treating physician was selected by the employer.” This means that under the ADA the employer is 100% responsible for job accommodations for the employee “who can perform the essential functions of their job with a reasonable accommodation.”

A truly integrated disability approach and interactive process is required because all medical-related absences, both occupational and non-occupational, are covered under the ADA. Remember, the injury and return-to-work process are covered under the ADA, but the benefits associated with an occupational injury are still covered 100% under state workers’ comp law. Workers’ comp remains the exclusive remedy for claimant medical and lost-wage benefits but is not the exclusive remedy for an employer to gather relevant information such as accident witness information or medical reports regarding cause of injury, comorbidities and pre-existing conditions that can be extremely relevant in the adjudication of a workers’ comp claim down the road.

Jay Peichel, a principal at Keystone Risk Partners in Media, PA, was intrigued by the various ITL articles on ADA, DOT and OSHA and the federal laws’ relation to the workers’ compensation process and how it may relate to the various barriers that can affect workers’ compensation outcomes such as significant claim reporting lag, limited investigation, poor return to work process and ineffective med-legal determinations. Keystone designed a workers’ comp survey and resultant proprietary scorecard as an assessment tool to quantify how current policies and procedures (including safety rules, accident reporting, supervisor training, medical management, use of provider networks, use of independent medical exams (IMEs) and medical second opinions and return-to-work programs) are integrated to take full advantage of state-specific workers’ comp rules and regulation in coordination with federal disability laws such as the ADA, FMLA, DOT exams, when applicable, and OSHA recordkeeping regulations.

See also: How Should Workers’ Compensation Evolve?  

Keystone saw this tool as a natural fit in their risk mitigation and analytics service platform and also their core platform of captive consulting, captive management and risk placement. Jay Peichel, who specializes in workers’ comp claim analytics and benchmarking for his employer clients, said this new survey was “designed to help isolate hidden cost drivers in HR and workers’ compensation programs. It also provides us the road map to provide recommendations and intervention points not in isolation but rather within an integrated process utilizing best practices in both workers’ comp and disability cost management. Strategically, it links to our analytics platform and our ability to quantify the changes in outcomes and total cost of risk.”

The survey and scorecard are provided for a nominal charge by Keystone Risk Partners. For more information, contact Jay at


About the Author

Dan Miller is president of Daniel R. Miller, MPH Consulting. He specializes in healthcare-cost containment, absence-management best practices (STD, LTD, FMLA and workers’ comp), integrated disability management and workers’ compensation managed care.

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