Tag Archives: web browser

Demystifying “The Dark Web”

We often hear reference to the “deep” or “dark” web. What exactly is the deep or dark web? Is it as illicit and scary as it is portrayed in the media?

This article will provide a brief overview and explanation of different parts of the web and will discuss why you just might want to go there.

THE SURFACE WEB

The surface web or “Clearnet” is the part of the web that you are most familiar with. Information that passes through the surface web is not encrypted, and users’ movements can be tracked. The surface web is accessed by search engines like Google, Bing or Yahoo. These search engines rely on pages that contain links to find and identify content. Search engine companies were developed so that they can quickly index millions of web pages in a short time and to provide an easy way to find content on the web. However, because these search engines only search links, tons of content is being missed. For example, when a local newspaper publishes an article on its homepage, that article can likely be reached via a surface web search engine like Yahoo. However, days later when the article is no longer featured on the homepage, the article might be moved into the site’s archive format and, therefore, would not be reachable via the Yahoo search engine. The only way to reach the article would be through the search box on the local paper’s web page. At that time, the article has left the surface web and has entered the deep web. Let’s go there now…

THE DEEP WEB

The deep web is a subset of the Internet and is not indexed by the major search engines. Because the information is not indexed, you have to visit those web addresses directly and then search through their content. Deep web content can be found almost anytime you do a search directly in a website — for example, government databases and libraries contain huge amounts of deep web data. Why does the deep web exist? Simply because the Internet is too large for search engines to cover completely. Experts estimate that the deep web is 400 to 500 times the size of the surface web, accounting for more than 90% of the internet. Now let’s go deeper…

THE DARK WEB

The dark web or “darknet” is a subset of the deep web. The dark web refers to any web page that has been concealed because it has no inbound links, and it cannot be found by users or search engines unless you know the exact address. The dark web is used when you want to control access to a site or need privacy, or often because you are doing something illegal. Virtual private networks (VPNs) are examples of dark web sites that are hidden from public access unless you know the web address and have the correct log-in credentials.

One of the most common ways to access the dark web is through the Tor network. The Tor network can only be accessed with a special web browser, called the Tor browser. Tor stands for “ The onion router” and is referred to as “Onionland.” This “onion routing” was developed in the mid-1990s by a mathematician and computer scientists at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory with the purpose of protecting U.S. intelligence communications online. This routing encrypts web traffic in layers and bounces it through random computers around the world. Each “bounce” encrypts the data before passing the data on to its next hop in the network. This prevents even those who control one of those computers in the chain from matching the traffic’s origin with its destination. Each server only moves that data to another server, preserving the anonymity of the sender.

Because of the anonymity associated with the Tor network and dark web, this portion of the Internet is most widely known for its illicit activities, and that is why the dark web has such a bad reputation (you might recall the infamous dark web site, Silk Road, an online marketplace and drug bazaar on the dark web). It is true that on the dark web you can buy things such as guns, drugs, pharmaceuticals, child porn, credit cards, medical identities and copyrighted materials. You can hire hackers to steal competitors’ secrets, launch a DDOS (distributed denial of service) attack on a rival, or hack your ex-girlfriend’s Facebook account. However, the dark web accounts for only about .01% of the web.

Some would say that the dark web has a bad rap, as not everything on the dark web is quite so “dark,” nefarious or illegal. Some communities that reside on the dark web are simply pro-privacy or anti-establishment. They want to function anonymously, without oversight, judgment or censorship. There are many legitimate uses for the dark web. People operating within closed, totalitarian societies can use the dark web to communicate with the outside world. Individuals can use the dark web news sites to obtain uncensored new stories from around the world or to connect to sites blocked by their local Internet providers or surface search engines. Sites are used by human rights groups and journalists to share information that could otherwise be tracked. The dark net allows users to publish web sites without the fear that the location of the site will be revealed (think political dissidents). Individuals also use the dark web for socially sensitive communications, such as chat rooms and web forums for sensitive political or personal topics.

Takeaway

Don’t be afraid – dive deeper!

Download the Tor browser at www.torproject.org and access the deep/dark web information you have been missing. Everything you do in the browser goes through the Tor network and doesn’t need any setup or configuration from you. That said, because your data goes through several relays, it can be slow, so you might experience a more sluggish Internet than usual. However, preserving your privacy might be worth the wait. If you are sick of mobile apps that are tracking you and sharing your information with advertisers, storing your search history, or figuring out your interests to serve you targeted ads, give the Tor browser a try.

How to Keep Malware in Check

Firewalls are superb at deflecting obvious network attacks. And intrusion detection systems continue to make remarkable advances. So why are network breaches continuing at an unprecedented scale?

One reason is the bad guys are adept at leveraging a work tool we all use intensively every day: the Web browser. Microsoft Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome and Apple Safari by design execute myriad tiny programs over which network administrators have zero control. Most of this code execution occurs with no action required by the user. That’s what makes browsers so nifty.

A blessing and a curse

But that architecture is also what makes browsers a godsend for intruders. All a criminal hacker has to do is slip malicious code into the mix of legit browser executable code. And, as bad guys are fully aware, there are endless ways to do that.

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The result: The majority of malware seeping into company networks today arrives via infectious code lurking on legit, high-traffic websites. The hackers’ game often boils down to luring victims to click to an infected site, or simply just waiting to see who shows up and gets infected.

So if browsers represent a wide open sieve to company networks, could inoculating browsers be something of a security silver bullet? A cadre of security start-ups laser-focused on boosting browser security is testing that notion. The trick, of course, is to do it without undermining usability.

spike

Branden Spikes, Spikes Security founder and CEO

ThirdCertainty recently sat down with one of these security innovators, Branden Spikes, to discuss the progress and promise of improving Web browser security. Spikes left his job as CIO of SpaceX, where he was responsible for securing the browsers of company owner Elon Musk’s team of rocket scientists, to launch an eponymous start-up, Spikes Security. (Answers edited for clarity and length.)

3C: The idea of making Web browsing more secure certainly isn’t new.

Spikes: Let me break it down by drawing a line between detection and isolation. Browser security has been attempted with detection for many, many years, and it’s proven to not work. McAfee, Symantec, Sophos, Kaspersky and all the anti-virus applications that might run on your computer became Web-aware a while back. They all try to use detection mechanisms to prevent you from going to bad places on the Web.

Then you have detection that takes place at secure Web gateways. Websense, Ironport (now part of Cisco), Blue Coat, Zscaler and numerous Web proxies out there have security features based on the concept of preventing you from going to places that look malicious or that are known to be bad. Well, hackers have figured out how to evade detection, so that battle has been lost.

3C: Okay, so you and other start-ups are waging the browser battle on a different front?

Spikes: When you realize that detection doesn’t work, now you have to isolate. You have to say, :You know, I don’t trust browsers anymore. Therefore, I’m not going to let my stuff interact with the Web directly.” In the past five years, newer products have started to offer browser isolation technology. We’ve taken a very no-compromise approach to isolation technology.

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3C: So instead of detecting and blocking you’re isolating, and sort of cleansing, browser interactions?

Spikes: Yes, and much like with detection technology, isolation can exist in either the endpoint or on the network. Some examples of endpoint isolation might be Invincea or Bromium, where you’ve got your sandboxes that do isolation on the endpoint. I applaud all the efforts out there. It spreads the whole gamut from minimal amount of isolation to sandbox technologies built into browsers. There’s quite a bit of investment going into this.

3C: Your approach is to intercept browser activity before it can execute on the worker’s computer.

Spikes: If you come at the problem from the assumption that all Web browsers are fundamentally malware, you can understand our technology. We essentially take the malware off the endpoint entirely, and we isolate the execution of Web pages on a purpose-built appliance. What goes to the end user is a very benign stream of images and sound. There’s really no way for malware to get across that channel.

3C: If browser security gets much better, at least in the workplace, how much will that help?

Spikes: If we successfully solve the browser malware problem, we could, I think, allow for more strategically important things to occur in cybersecurity. We could watch the other entry points that are less obvious. This sort of rampant problem with the browser may have taken some very important attention away from other entry points into the network: physical entry points, social engineering and some of the more dynamic and challenging types of attacks.