Tag Archives: ulae

Rethinking the Claims Value Chain

As a claims advisor, I specialize in helping to optimize property casualty claims management operations, so I spend a lot of time thinking about claims business processes, activities, dependencies and the value chains that are commonly used to structure and refine them. Lately, I have been focusing on the claims management supply chain — the vendors who provide products and perform services that are critical inputs into the claims management and fulfillment process.

In a traditional manufacturing model, the supply chain and the value chain are typically separate and — the supply chain provides raw materials, and the value chain connects activities that transform the raw materials into something valuable to customers. In a claims service delivery model, the value chain and the supply chain are increasingly overlapping, to the point where it is becoming hard to argue that any component of the claims value chain couldn’t be handled directly by the supply chain network.

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Which creates an intriguing possibility for an insurance company — an alternative to bricks and mortar and company cars and salaries, a virtual claims operation! Of course, there are third-party administrators (TPAs) that are large and well-developed enough to offer complete, end-to-end claims management and fulfillment services to an insurance company through an outsourced arrangement. That would be the one-stop shopping solution: hiring a TPA to replace your claims operation. But try to envision an end-to-end process in which you invite vendors/partners/service providers to compete to handle each component in your claims value chain (including processing handoffs to each other.) You select the best, negotiate attractive rates, lock in service guarantees and manage the whole process simply by monitoring a performance dashboard that displays real time data on effectiveness, efficiency, data quality, regulatory compliance and customer satisfaction.

You would need a system to integrate the inputs from the different suppliers to feed the dashboard, and you would also need to make certain the suppliers all worked together well enough to provide the ultimate customer with a seamless, pain free experience, but you are probably already doing some of that if you use vendors. You would still want to do quality and compliance and leakage audits, of course, but you could always hire a different vendor to do that for you or keep a small team to do it yourself.

Your unallocated loss adjustment expenses (ULAE) would become variable, tied directly to claim volume, and your main operating challenge would be to manage your supply/value chain to produce the most desirable cost and experience outcomes. Improved cycle time, efficiency, effectiveness, data accuracy and the quality of the customer experience would be your value propositions. You could even monitor the dashboard from your beach house or boat — no more staff meetings, performance reviews, training sessions — and intervene only when needed in response to pre-defined operational exceptions.

Sounds like a no-brainer. Insurance companies have been outsourcing portions of their value chain to vendors for years, so why haven’t they made their claims operations virtual?

If you are running an insurance company claims operation, you probably know why. Many (probably most) claims executives are proud of and comfortable with their claims operations just the way they are. They believe they are performing their value chain processes more effectively than anyone else could, or that their processes are “core” (so critical or so closely related to their value proposition they cannot be performed by anyone else) and thus sacrosanct, or that they have already achieved an optimal balance between in-house and outsourced services so they don’t need to push it any further. Others don’t like the loss of control associated with outsourcing, or they don’t want to consider disruptive change. Still others think it might be worth exploring, but they don’t believe they can make a successful business case for the investment in systems and change costs. Unfortunately, this may help explain why claims executives are often accused of being stubbornly change averse and overly comfortable with the status quo, but I think it is a bit more complicated than that — it all begins with the figurative “goggles” we use to self-evaluate claims operations.

If you are running a claims operation, you have an entire collection of evaluation goggles — the more claims experience you have, the larger your collection. When you have your “experience” goggles on, you compare your operation to others you have read about, or seen in prior jobs, or at competitors, to make sure your activities and results benchmark well and that you are staying up to date with best practices. At least once a year, someone outside of claims probably demands that you put your “budget” goggles on o look for opportunities to reduce ULAE costs. or legal costs, or fines and penalties, or whatever. You probably look through your “customer satisfaction” goggles quite a bit, particularly when complaints are up, or you are getting bad press because of your CAT response, or a satisfaction survey has come out and you don’t look good. Your “stakeholder” goggles help you assess how successful you have been at identifying those who have a vested interest in how well you perform, determining what it is they need from you to succeed, and delivering it. You use your “legal and regulatory compliance” goggles to identify problems before they turn into fines, bad publicity or litigation, much as you use your “no surprises” goggles to continually scan for operational breakdowns that might cause reputational or financial pain, finger pointing and second guessing. Then there are the goggles for “management” — litigation, disability, medical, vendor — and for “fraud mitigation” and “recovery” and “employee engagement.” Let’s not forget the “efficiency” goggles, which help you assess unit costs and productivity, and the “effectiveness” and “quality control” goggles, which permit you to see whether your processes are producing intended and expected results. And of course your “loss cost management” goggles give you a good read on how well you are managing all three components of your loss cost triangle, i.e., whether you are deploying and incurring the most effective combination of allocated and unallocated expenses to produce the most appropriate level of loss payments.

Are all those goggles necessary? You bet. Claims management involves complex processes and inputs and a convoluted web of variables and dependencies and contingencies. Most claims executives would probably agree it makes sense to regularly evaluate a claims operation from many different angles to get a good read on what’s working well , what isn’t and where there is opportunity for improvement. The multiple perspectives provided by your goggles help you triangulate causes, understand dependencies and impacts and intelligently balance operations to produce the best outcomes. So even if you do have a strong bias that your organization design is world-class, your people are the best and all processes and outcomes are optimal, the evaluation should give you plenty of evidence-based information with which to test that bias and identify enhancement opportunities — as long as you keep an open mind.

No matter what you do, however, there will always be others in your organization who enjoy evaluating your claims operation, and they usually aren’t encumbered by such an extensive collection of goggles. They may have only one set that is tuned to budget, or customer experience, or compliance, or they may be under the influence of consultants whose expensive goggles are tuned to detect opportunities for large-scale disruptive/destructive process innovation or transformation in your operation. On the basis of that narrow view, they just might conclude that things need to change, that new operating models need to be explored. Whether you agree or disagree, your evidence-based information should be of some value in framing and joining the debate.

Will we ever see virtual claims operations? Sure. There are many specialized claims service providers operating in the marketplace right now that can perform claims value chain processes faster, cheaper and better than many insurance companies can perform them. The technology exists to integrate multiple provider data inputs and create a performance dashboard. And there are a few large insurance company claims organizations pursuing this angle vigorously right now. I fully expect the companies that rethink and retool their claims value chains to take full advantage of integration of supply chain capabilities and begin to generate improved performance metrics and claim outcomes, ultimately creating competitive advantage for themselves. Does that mean it is time for you to rethink your claims value chain? I think the best way to find out is to put on your “innovation” goggles and take a look!

California Workers' Compensation Self-Insurance Update

Under the new requirements of SB 863, California private (non-public entity) workers’ comp self-insured employers and self-insured groups (SIGs) starting this year are required to submit an actuarial study and an actuarial summary form to the Department of Industrial Relation’s Office of Self-Insured Plans (OSIP). Private self-insured employers’ actuarial submissions are due on May 1 and SIGs are due on April 15. The new actuarial study and summary form must both be prepared by a qualified actuary, as defined by OSIP.

Under SB 863, the method for calculating OSIP’s required security deposits has changed from the old method involving the Estimated Future Liabilities (EFL) formula (multiplied by a factor of 1.35 – 2.00) to the new actuarial methodology. This is considered the “gold standard” by insurers, captives, and other state Guaranty Funds as well. Self insurers are still required to submit their self-insured employers’ annual reports to OSIP as they have always done. This annual report covers the self-insured entity’s open workers’ comp claims by calendar year.

Those 340+ self-insured entities in the Alternative Security Program (ASP) of the Self-Insurers’ Security Fund (SISF) are part of the annual composite deposit program wherein SISF provides OSIP with their security deposit guarantee. They post nothing. Therefore, their security deposits are “notional” since SISF covers them. SISF’s ASP member assessments in July, 2013 will be adjusted (i.e. rebalanced) to reflect the new actuarial standard. Some ASP entities may experience increases or decreases in their annual assessments as a result of their restated open claim liabilities using a uniform actuarial standard. Currently, SISF member security deposits are based on factors of 135% to over 200% of their total EFL.

SISF's excluded entities are those that are required to post collateral (cash, LOC, securities, or security bonds) with OSIP. The 25 active California SIG's already post security deposits based upon an actuarial figure, but in 2013 SIG security deposits — like individual self-insureds — is at the undiscounted “expected level” versus the previous standard of an 80% confidence level.

Each self-insured's actuarial report must include: Incurred But Not Reported (IBNR) liabilities, Allocated Loss Adjustment Expense (ALAE), and Unallocated Loss Adjusted Expense (ULAE), less any credit for applicable excess insurance. Each of these amounts will be reported on the actuarial summary form. There are currently 55 single-entity self-insureds that will now be required to post their OSIP security deposit based upon their 2012 actuarial report submittal.

The new OSIP self-insured actuarial summary form was just placed on the OSIP website on February 14, 2013. (Note: These new requirements do not apply to government entities and JPA's).

The actuarial valuation report of the self-insured's open workers' comp claims must be as of December 31 of the previous year (i.e. 12/31/2012). Actuaries may roll forward liabilities to the December 31 date instead of having a separate study performed if the self-insured already has actuarial studies that use a different valuation date.

It's important to note that with nearly 500 self-insured entities being impacted in 2013 by SB 863 changes, exceptions to the requirement to file an actuarial summary are being developed and will be contained in a regular rulemaking package that should be publically announced within the next four to six weeks. The proposed exceptions will most likely only pertain to self-insurers that have a few open claims or a very low total ELF.

David Axene, a healthcare actuary and an Insurance Thought Leadership author and advisory board member, recommends Jeffrey R. Jordan and Frederick W. Kilbourne as actuaries who would be able to help you with the actuarial study and actuarial summary form now required as a result of the passage of SB 863:

Jeffrey R. Jordan, FCAS, MAAA
Phone: 818.879.1299
Send Jeffrey an Email

Frederick W. Kilbourne, FCAS, MAAA, FSA
Phone: 858.793.1300
Website: www.thekilbournecompany.com
Send Frederick an Email

Additional Resources To Help You Find An Actuary
Society of Actuaries
Online Directory of Actuarial Memberships