Tag Archives: risk-taking

An Overlooked Risk in Workers’ Comp

Sleep deprivation is an issue that is often overlooked, yet frequently the cause of decreased productivity, accidents, incidents and mistakes that cost companies billions of dollars each year, reports Circadian, a global leader in providing 24/7 workforce performance and safety solutions for businesses that operate around the clock.

Often, the experts at Circadian say, employers are unaware of the impact fatigue or sleep deprivation is having on their operation until a tragic accident occurs. Only then do managers ask the question: “What happened?”

Sleep deprivation is much more dangerous than you might realize. It’s not just annoying, like when an employee snoozes in a meeting or yawns during a conversation. Here are 10 real dangers associated with the overlooked problems in a sleep-deprived workforce:

  1. Decreased communication: When workers are tired, they become poor communicators. In one study, researchers noted that sleep-deprived individuals drop the intensity of their voices; pause for long intervals without apparent reason; enunciate very poorly or mumble instructions inaudibly; mispronounce, slur or run words together; and repeat themselves or lose their place in a sentence sequence.
  2. Performance deteriorates: Performance declines frequently include increased compensatory efforts on activities, decreased vigilance and slower response time. The average functional level of any sleep-deprived individual is comparable to the 9th percentile of non-sleep-deprived individuals. Workers must notice these performance declines, right? Not quite. In fact, sleep-deprived individuals have poor insight into their performance deficits. Also, the performance deficits worsen as time on task increases.
  3. Increased risk of becoming distracted: Sleep-deprived individuals have been shown to have trouble with maintaining focus on relevant cues, developing and updating strategies, keeping track of events and maintaining interest in outcomes and, instead, attend to activities judged to be non-essential. In fact, research suggests that there is a symbiotic relationship between sleep deprivation and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) because of the overlap in symptoms.
  4. Driving impairments: Because of federal regulations, the trucking industry is well aware of the driving impairments associated with sleep deprivation. However, plant managers are unaware of the ways in which sleep-deprived workers may be dangerously operating machinery (e.g. forklifts or dump trucks). In fact, 22 hours of sleep deprivation results in neurobehavioral performance impairments that are comparable to a 0.08% blood alcohol level (legally drunk in the U.S.).
  5. Increased number of errors: The cognitive detriments of sleep deprivation increase concurrently with a worker’s time on a given task, resulting in an increased number of errors. These errors include mistakes of both commission (i.e., performing an act that leads to harm) and omission (i.e., not performing an expected task), which can wreak havoc at any work facility. Errors especially are likely in subject-paced tasks in which cognitive slowing occurs and with tasks that are time-sensitive, which cause increases in cognitive errors.
  6. Poor cognitive assimilation and memory: Short-term and working memory declines are associated with sleep deprivation and result in a decreased ability to develop and update strategies based on new information, along with the ability to remember the temporal sequence of events.
  7. Inappropriate moodines: Inappropriate, mood-related behavior often occurs in outbursts, as most sleep-deprived individuals are often quiet and socially withdrawn. However, a single one of these outbursts can be enough to destroy the positive culture of a work environment and cause an HR nightmare. These behavioral outbursts can include irritability, impatience, childish humor, lack of regard for normal social conventions, inappropriate interpersonal behaviors and unwillingness to engage in forward planning.
  8. Greater risk-taking behavior: Brain imaging studies have shown that sleep deprivation was associated with increased activation of brain regions related to risky decision making, while areas that control rationale and logical thinking show lower levels of activation. In fact, sleep deprivation increases one’s expectation of gains while diminishing the implications of losses. What does this mean for your workers? Sleep-deprived workers may be making riskier decisions, ignoring the potential negative implications and taking gambles in scenarios in which the losses outweigh the benefits.
  9. Inability to make necessary adjustments: Flexible thinking, preservation on thoughts and actions, updating strategies based on new information, ability to think divergently and innovation are all hurt by sleep deprivation. A worker may be unable to fill a leadership role on request when sleep-deprived, resulting in a frustrated management team.
  10. Effects of sleep deprivation compound across nights: Four or more nights of partial sleep deprivation containing less than seven hours of sleep per night can be equivalent to a total night of sleep deprivation. A single night of total sleep deprivation can affect your functioning for as long as two weeks. To your brain, sleep is money, and the brain is the best accountant.

According to Circadian, when you have sleep-deprived or fatigued workers, productivity levels and quality of work will be compromised. Furthermore, you create an environment where it becomes not a matter of if your workplace will have an accident or incident but a matter of when, and to what magnitude.

Sleep deprivation is no laughing matter, no matter how frequently our society treats the issue light-heartedly. Eventually, our biological drive to compensate for sleep deprivation wins, and the loser might be your workers, your employer or even you.

The expectation is that employees return to work in January feeling recharged and ready to perform their best. In reality, one in every five workers is sleep-deprived, and those who sleep poorly are 54% more likely to experience stress in their job, according to a new study from international employee health and performance organization Global Corporate Challenge (GCC).

The report, “Waking Up To the Sleep Problem Every Employer Is Facing,” also found that 93% of poor sleepers were more likely to display workplace fatigue, a common symptom of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) – the condition proven to increase risks of absenteeism, accidents and injury in the workplace.

“Independent research undertaken on GCC participants in the 2014 challenge demonstrates that sleep improves with increased step count in a linear fashion,” said Dr. David Batman, director of research, FCDP. “There are significant increases in productivity and reduction in fatigue and stress levels at work and home. Extrapolation of these results leads to an obvious conclusion that simple exercise improves sleep, and the combined result will be an increase in personal and business performance.”

The results come from the health and performance leaders’ first series of GCC Insights papers, based on aggregate data drawn from employees in 185 countries. With more than 1.5 million people having now been through the program, the data sample is one of the largest, most diverse of its kind.

This GCC Insights paper also provides practical recommendations for employers who recognize that their workers’ mental and physical health inextricably is linked to business success – a realization that, for many, signals a need to rethink outdated well-being strategies in exchange for a longer-term commitment to employee health.

“The cost of poor sleep habits among employee populations has been grossly underestimated; it is having profound consequences for productivity and health,” said Glenn Riseley, founder and president at the GCC. “Luckily, enlightened employers are now changing their cultures so that sleep is no longer seen as a luxury but as a priority.”

10 Building Blocks for Risk Leaders (Part 5)

Important things in life are not easily reduced to 10 steps. Nevertheless, this series provides a list of 10 building blocks to achieving long-term success in risk management from someone who has spent more than 25 years striving to carve out the most satisfying career possible, while never losing sight of the attributes attached to the bigger picture. Part 1 is here, Part 2 here, Part 3 here and Part 4 here. This is the fifth and final part.

9. Advance the Profession by Finding or Creating Personal Vision

The concept of innovation is directly and explicitly tied to risk and risk management. Put simply, there is no innovation without risk. Part of this paradigm is taking personal risk to move the discipline forward to places others may not have imagined. In the realm of risk management, settling for the status quo is to be avoided at all costs . Nothing stays the same for long, and a core competency of a true risk leader is having the gumption to push back on owners, which sometimes means questioning authority.

Just as the overall business environment is ever-evolving, the myriad internal and external drivers that can affect the risk profile of organizations must be carefully monitored. It is in this monitoring where the willingness to challenge conventional thinking and the status quo can lead to change, and risk-taking behaviors can be shifted to be more in line with risk appetite and tolerances. A vision for more innovative processes, tools and techniques can be developed, as well as an enhanced view into the murk of risk itself. Importantly, this demonstration of risk leadership will lead to the evolution of risk leaders’ personal vision for more effective risk management for their organizations.

If we haven’t learned anything else since that fateful day on Sept. 11, 2001, we’ve learned that new risks emerge with increasing regularity and seem to have increasing relevance to enterprise success. Furthermore, these new and emerging risks often fall into the strategic category, so they are often not easily measured or mitigated. All this speaks to the need for continuous improvement and innovation in how risk management is practiced and how it affects the design and execution of the organization’s risk framework and model. While personal vision for risk management is necessary — for personal satisfaction and the long-term success of the firm — no two frameworks or models are exactly alike, just as no two firm risk profiles are identical.

By crafting risk strategy, framework and model around the continuously evolving needs of the firm, risk leaders’ vision for risk management will take shape. As it is successfully implemented, this vision will also drive the risk profession forward, through benchmarking, networking and professional external collaborations, allowing all risk practitioners to improve, as well. This is the perfect segue to the last element of a personal risk leader success profile.

10. Give Back

Giving back to the next generation and to communities and nonprofit organizations (some of which can’t afford the cost of risk expertise, e.g., churches and civic organizations) is essential to developing a well-rounded leader and person. But giving back goes well beyond even service to the community and to nonprofits. In the larger context, giving back includes various strategies to help others. Examples include employing interns on a regular basis and taking the time to coach and mentor them well. Too often, intern programs are mismanaged or even abused as sources of raw labor out of which no real development or education occurs. This destroys the attraction to enter the risk profession. Because these programs—done well—can be the source of exceptional talent, it behooves all risk leaders to take advantage of intern sourcing when feasible and include it as a key component of long-term resource planning.

Giving back is also accomplished by bringing the risk leaders’ considerable knowledge to various forums, such as at conferences and industry meetings, through presentations and participation in efforts to discover new solutions to problems. While the primary goal should be to help others, it almost always includes mutual benefit. Many of my colleagues say they actually get more out of this effort than they put in. That has certainly been true for me.

Another example of giving back is the Spencer Educational Foundation’s Risk Manager in Residence Program. This program provides funding for risk experts to bring that expertise into higher educational institutions through a series of lectures and teaching done with the collaboration of selected professors whose goal is to bring diverse experiential learning to students pursuing risk and insurance degrees. This program has been instrumental in highlighting for students the opportunities available in the risk discipline.

There are many opportunities to serve other organizations through volunteer board and advisory positions, where risk experience and expertise is made available to help these organizations, particularly with risk governance. A residual benefit of this activity is broadening the network of contacts and relationships outside the industry, where a clear demand for risk expertise is almost always needed, but infrequently recognized or acted upon.

Last, but certainly not least, is the ever-present opportunity to mentor and coach others to help them achieve their career goals. This is a fundamental responsibility of every manager of people. But it really gains traction with others when those outside the immediate work circle ask for mentoring or coaching, as they recognize and value the deep and broad expertise they can learn via a mentoring program. Usually accompanying that is a keen understanding of the political, social and cultural aspects of work life that those with less experience often find challenging to navigate. One benefit of this activity is a deep and lasting gratitude that is too infrequent in day-to-day business interactions. The related personal satisfaction is often immeasurable and certainly lasting. Personal brands are enhanced, and those being mentored can close the loop on what a true risk leader profile looks like.

Conclusion

There you have it—my list of 10 building blocks for long-term success in risk management. All functions need great leaders to achieve high performance, and risk leaders have more than their share of hurdles to overcome in the process. And yet, those who stick their necks out and take the personal risk associated with doing extraordinary things often succeed in doing so. I urge you to think big about the possibilities of a career in risk and consider these 10 important things that can help define the correct path to take.

After all, no risk, no reward.

ERM Alive and Well in Middle East

Having returned from a week in Dubai, where I co-chaired the 4th Annual Middle East and North African ERM Conference and led a two-day workshop on risk and strategy, I am pleased to report that ERM is alive and well half-way around the world. This reinforces my similar experience at the same forum (2nd annual) in 2012. While there may be a perception of free-flowing money and excess in this region, it is clear that key companies in many industries, including finance, energy and healthcare, face most of the same challenges in driving effective risk management strategies and programs as many of the companies in the West. Even though many risk leaders in the Middle East gained their educational backgrounds in Western institutions, where in many cases ERM is still a suspect discipline, many have nevertheless gained significant traction with advanced risk management strategies in their companies.

An interesting angle was revealed at the MENA conference that raises challenging questions for many of these practitioners. It emerged first as an informal, anecdotal comment about the challenge of raising the profile and effectiveness of risk management functions where there was little or no tolerance for risk. While most risk professionals face this challenge at one point or another in their careers, it appears more widespread in this region. The question is: why, and how to do you manage through this dilemma?

First, recognize that all organizations have a risk attitude that ranges from extreme risk aversion to a radically risk-seeking culture — you have a risk culture by default, if you don’t actively design and implement the risk culture you desire. Most often, the actual risk attitude plays itself out in risk-taking behaviors that form the basis for a risk-appetite framework and strategy. Within the context of a risk culture, which is defined primarily by the risk-taking behaviors of employees, every person has a risk attitude and appetite for risk.

The collection of these appetites and associated risk-taking behaviors can lead to what the MENA region seems to reflect, namely little or no tolerance for certain risks. That risk culture will frequently lead to performance issues or product/service pricing challenges that affect competitiveness and reputation. While it is appropriate to avoid certain risks, doing so is generally a bad choice when growth through innovation is desired; risk-taking comes with that strategy.

So attendees at MENA and others who wrestle with risk aversion should realize that this is incompatible with  long-term success in a competitive environment. As a result, they should commit to developing a consensus for a risk culture that aligns with an appetite for risk that is consistent with balanced or prudent risk taking.