Tag Archives: Maersk

Blockchain’s Future in Insurance

Blockchain is a revolutionary technology that is likely to have a far-reaching impact on business – on a par with the transformative effect of the internet. Not surprisingly, the huge potential promised by blockchain has prompted a flurry of research activity across different sectors as diverse organizations race to develop applications.

In this article, we’ll explore the many benefits that blockchain could bring to the insurance industry and the different challenges that will need to be overcome.

Overview

Blockchain has strong potential in the short and long term in several different areas, particularly where it links with emerging technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT) and artificial intelligence (AI). But its potential for delivering new applications also depends on the development of blockchain technology itself. In the medium and short term, there are three categories where blockchain can be applied:

  • Data storage and exchange: Numerous data and files can be stored using blockchain. The technology provides for more secure, traceable records compared with current storage means.
  • Peer-to-peer electronic payment: Bitcoin (and other blockchain-based cash systems) is a cryptographic proof-based electronic payment system (instead of a trust-based one). This feature is highly efficient while ensuring transparent and traceable electronic transfer.
  • Smart contracts: Smart contracts are digital protocols whereby various parameters are set up in advance. When pre-set parameters are satisfied, smart contracts can execute various tasks without human intervention, greatly increasing efficiency.

Data storage and peer-to-peer electronic transfer are feasible blockchain applications for the short term. At this stage, the technical advantages of blockchain are mainly reflected in data exchange efficiencies, as well as larger-scale data acquisition.

See also: The Opportunities in Blockchain  

Smart contracts via blockchain will play a more important role in the medium to long term. By that time, blockchain-based technology will have a far-reaching impact on the business model of insurance companies, industrial management models and institutional regulation. Of course, there will be challenges to overcome, and further technological innovation will be needed as blockchain’s own deficiencies or risks emerge during its evolution. But just like internet technology decades ago, blockchain promises to be a transformative technology.

Scenarios for blockchain applications in insurance

Macro level

Proponents of blockchain technology believe it has the power to break the data acquisition barrier and revolutionize data sharing and data exchange in the industry. Small and medium-sized carriers could use blockchain-based technology to obtain higher-quality and more comprehensive data, giving them access to new opportunities and growth through more accurate pricing and product design in specific niche markets.

At the same time, blockchain-based insurance and reinsurance exchange platforms – that could include many parties – would also upgrade industry processes. For example, Zhong An Technology is currently working closely with reinsurers in Shanghai to try to establish a blockchain reinsurance exchange platform.

Scenario 1 – Mutual insurance

Blockchain is a peer-to-peer mechanism, via the DAO (decentralized autonomic organization) as a virtual decision-making center, and premiums paid by each and every insured are stored in the DAO. Each and every insured participant has the right to vote and therefore decide on final claim settlement when a claim is triggered. Blockchain makes the process transparent and highly efficient with secure premium collection, management and claim payment thanks to its decentralization.

In China, Trust Mutual Life has built a platform based on blockchain and biological identification technology. In August 2017, Trust Mutual Life launched a blockchain-based mutual life insurance product called a “Courtesy Help Account,” where every member can follow the fund. Plus, the platform reduces operational costs more than a traditional life insurance company of a similar size.

Scenario 2 – Microinsurance (short-term insurance products for certain specific scenarios)

An example of short-term insurance could be for car sharing or providers of booking and renting accommodation via the internet. Such products are mainly pre-purchased by the service provider and then purchased by end users. However, blockchain makes it possible for end users to purchase insurance coverage at any time based on their actual usage, inception and expiring time/date. In this way, records would be much more accurate and therefore avoid potential disputes.

Scenario 3 – Automatic financial settlement

The technical characteristics of blockchain have inherent advantages in financial settlement. Combined with smart contracts, blockchain can be applied efficiently and securely throughout the entire process of insurance underwriting, premium collection, indemnity payment and even reinsurance.

Micro level

Blockchain has the potential to change the pattern of product design, pricing and claim services.

Parametric insurance (e.g. for agricultural insurance, delay-in-flight insurance, etc.):

Parametric insurance requires real-time data interface and exchange among different parties. Although it is an efficient form of risk transfer, it still has room for further cost improvement. Taking parametric agricultural insurance and flight delay insurance as examples, a lot of human intervention is still required for claim settlement and payment.

With blockchain, the efficiency of data exchange can be significantly improved. Smart contracts can also further reduce human intervention in terms of claim settlement, indemnity payment, etc., which will significantly reduce the insurance companies’ operating costs. In addition, operating efficiency is increased, boosting customer satisfaction.

Some Chinese insurers are already working on blockchain-based agricultural insurance. In March 2018, for example, PICC launched a blockchain-based livestock insurance platform. Currently, the project is limited to cows. Each cow is identified and registered in the blockchain-based platform during its whole life cycle. All necessary information is uploaded and stored in real time in the platform. Claims are triggered and settled automatically via blockchain. The platform also serves as an efficient and reliable food safety tracing system.

Auto insurance, homeowners insurance: 

Blockchain has wider application scenarios in the field of auto insurance and homeowners insurance when combined with the IoT. There are applications from a single vehicle perspective as well as portfolios as a whole. From a standalone vehicle perspective, the complete history of each vehicle is stored in blocks. This feature allows insurers to have access to accurate information on each and every vehicle, plus maintenance, accidents, vehicle parts conditions, history and the owner’s driving habits. Such data facilitates more accurate pricing based on dedicated information for each and every single vehicle.

From the insured’s point of view, the combination of blockchain and IoT effectively simplifies the claims service process and claim settlement efficiency.

From the perspective of the overall vehicle, blockchain and IoT can drastically lower big data acquisition barriers, especially for small  and medium-sized carriers. This will have a positive impact on pricing accuracy and new product development in auto insurance.

Taking usage-based insurance (UBI) for autos as an example, it’s technically possible to record and share the exact time and route of an insured vehicle, meaning that UBI policies could be priced much more accurately. Of course, insurers will have to consider how to respond in situations where built-in sensors in the insured vehicle break or a connection fails. Furthermore, insurance companies also have to decide whether an umbrella policy is needed on top of the UBI policy, to control their exposure when such situations occur.

Cargo insurance:

Real-time information sharing of goods, cargo ships, vehicles, etc. is made possible with blockchain and the IoT. This will not only improve claims service efficiency but also help to reduce moral hazards.

In this regard, Maersk, EY Guardtime and XL Catlin recently launched a blockchain-based marine insurance platform cooperation project. Its aim is to facilitate data and information exchange, reduce operating costs among all stakeholders and improve the credibility and transparency of shared information.

International program placement and premium/claims management:

Blockchain-based technology allows insurance companies, brokers and corporate risk managers to improve the efficiency of international program settlement and daily management, at the same time reducing data errors from different countries and regions and avoiding currency exchange losses.

Coping with claim frauds:

Blockchain is already being applied to verify the validity of claims and the amount of adjustment. In Canada, the Quebec auto insurance regulator (Québec Auto Insurance) has implemented a blockchain-based information exchange platform. Driver information, vehicle registration information, the vehicle’s technical inspection result, auto insurance and claims information, etc. are all shared through the platform. The platform not only reduces insurance companies’ operating costs but also effectively helps to reduce fraud.

All insurance companies that have access to the platform receive a real-time notice when a vehicle is reported to be stolen. Insurance companies have full access to every vehicle’s technical information, which promotes more accurate pricing for individual policyholders.

Claims settlement:

Using a smart contract, the insured will automatically receive indemnity when conditions in the policy are met: Human intervention will not be needed to adjust the settlement. In the future, some insurance products will effectively be smart contracts whereby coverages, terms and conditions are actually the parameters of the smart contract. When the parameters are met, policies are triggered automatically by the smart contract and a record stored in the blockchain.

Business models like this will not only build higher trust in the insurance company but will also greatly increase its operational efficiency, reducing costs; it will also help to reduce moral hazard.

Internal management systems:

Internal management systems could be automated through use of blockchain and smart contracts, helping to improve management efficiency and reduce labor costs as well as the efficiency of compliance audit.

See also: How Insurance and Blockchain Fit  

Challenges and problems

Decentralization strengthens information sharing and reduces the monopoly advantages that information asymmetry provides. Under such circumstances, insurance companies have to pay more attention to pricing, product development, claims services and even reputation risk. All this adds up to new challenges for the company management.

At the same time, every aspect of the insurance industry must be more focused on ensuring the accuracy of original information at the initial stage of its business. Knowing how to respond to false declarations from insureds will be crucial.

From a more macro perspective, “localized blocks” of data will be inevitable in the early phase of development in line with the pace of technical development and regulatory constraints.

In theory, it is impossible to hack blockchain, but data protection will be an issue for localized blocks. Therefore, higher cyber security protection will be required to protect these localized blocks.

The interaction of blockchain with other technologies could mean that existing intermediary roles are replaced by new technologies in different sectors. If the insurance industry wants to ensure the continuous development of the intermediary, it should address the possible disruptive risks to existing distribution business models posed by blockchain.

The necessary investment (both tangible and intangible costs) associated with adopting blockchain technology is a big consideration for many companies at this stage. Insurance companies and reinsurance companies operate numerous systems, and the decision to integrate blockchain-based technology/platform shouldn’t be taken lightly. At the current stage of blockchain evolution, this could be one of the biggest obstacles facing insurers.

Overall, blockchain is an inspiring prospect, and there is every reason to believe that this technological breakthrough will bring positive effects to individual insurers everywhere. But at the same time, we need to understand the mutual challenges that lie ahead and work together to promote our industry’s development in what promises to be an exciting new era.

Download PDF version for endnotes and further reading.

Gradually and Then Suddenly…

Excerpted from MSA’s Q1-2018 Outlook Report (June 2018)

The insurance industry has been compared to the proverbial frog in the pot of ever hotter water. While things appear on the surface comparable to what they were like 10 years ago, perhaps with some nuanced variations, there appears to be little in the way of differences. Yes, mergers continue happening at the carrier level, and direct insurers are slowly gaining market share, but the band plays on. Industry associations continue holding conventions, insurers, reinsurers and brokers continue their traditions and year-end pilgrimages to London, Monte Carlo, Baden-Baden, NICC and the Aon Rendezvous, and the various other stations still welcome a familiar crowd. But signs that fundamental changes are afoot are becoming ever harder to ignore.

In Ernest Hemingway’s 1926 novel, “The Sun Also Rises,” there’s a snippet of dialogue that seems apropos:

How did you go bankrupt?” Bill asked.

“Two ways,” Mike said. “Gradually and then suddenly.”

The primary driver of the change is technology. The less noticeable catalyst, but no less important, is changes in regulatory mindsets. Let’s tackle both.

The two most influential market conduct regulators in Canada are readying themselves for technological disruption of the industries they oversee.

Quebec’s regulator, the AMF, has publicly expressed that it is “open for business” in terms of insurtech/ fintech under CEO Louis Morisset and Superintendent of Solvency Patrick Déry.

FSCO has recently moved to be more flexible within the tight bounds of its mandate, and its successor, FSRA, will be a modern independent agency purposely built for adaptability; it emerges from its cocoon under the guidance of a professional board and the stewardship of its CEO, Mark White, in April 2019.

FSRA and the AMF are positioning themselves to allow experimentation via regulatory sandboxes, whereby players can test initiatives in the field. This sandbox methodology is modeled after the Ontario Security Commission’s LaunchPad initiative.

See also: Global Trend Map No. 19: N. America (Part 1)  

You may not have noticed it, but the regulatory ground in two of Canada’s largest provinces has shifted, and the stage is being set for ever-faster innovation in the Canadian insurtech space. In fact, in conversations with Guy Fraker, chief innovation officer at California-based Insurance Thought Leadership and emcee for the InsurTech North Conference in Gatineau in October, he advises that Canada is being looked at as a regulatory innovation hub by the global insurtech community.

Even under the old FSCO regime, Canada’s largest insurer, Intact, pulled off what might be a master stroke in July 2016 when it issued a fleet policy to Uber, providing coverage to tens of thousands of Uber drivers when engaged in Uber activities. So, in one fell swoop, a single insurer swept up tens of thousands of drivers. Intact pulled another coup by partnering with Turo in Canada. Turo is a peer-to-peer car-sharing marketplace that is busy disrupting the sleepy and sloppy car rental industry. This again gives Intact access to thousands of drivers with the stroke of a pen. Further, Intact may be able to leverage the access it has to those drivers to provide full auto coverage and even residential coverages. When these risks are gone, they’re lost to the rest of the market. Striking deals with the likes of Uber and Turo changes the game. In the U.S., Turo partners with Liberty Mutual, and with Allianz in Germany. Uber partners with Allstate, Farmers, James River and Progressive in the U.S. Aviva has pulled off a similar deal in Canada with Uber’s nemesis, Lyft.

Further afield, B3i, the industry blockchain initiative has been established with the support of 15 large insurers/reinsurers. It is just starting up, but its mission is to remove friction from insurer/reinsurer transactions and risk transfer. When friction goes, so will costs. It is starting out slowly, but things may change suddenly – reshaping whole segments of the market. In addition to the original 15, the initiative has been joined by 23 industry testers.

In the U.S., The Institutes (the educational body behind the CPCU designation) launched a similar blockchain consortium called RiskBlock, which currently counts 18 members:

  • American Agricultural Insurance
  • American Family Insurance
  • Chubb
  • Erie Insurance
  • Farmers Insurance
  • The Hanover Insurance Group
  • Horace Mann Educators
  • Liberty Mutual Insurance
  • Marsh
  • Munich Reinsurance America
  • Nationwide Insurance
  • Ohio Mutual Insurance Group
  • Penn National Insurance
  • RCM&D
  • RenaissanceRe
  • State Automobile Mutual Insurance
  • United Educators
  • USAA

There is talk of establishing a Canadian insurance blockchain consortium, as well. You can hear from leaders of B3i, RiskBlock and parties involved in the Canadian initiative at the NICC in October.

Even further afield, if one was to look for an industry that makes the insurance sector look futuristic, one need not look further than the global supply chain shipping industry, with antiquated bills of lading, layers of intermediation and massive administrative overheads. Well, that industry is getting a serious wakeup call thanks to determination and drive of the world’s largest shipping company, Maersk. The company is taking its industry by the scruff of the neck and pulling it into the future whether it likes it or not – long-standing tradition, relationships and methods notwithstanding.

First, in March 2017, Maersk teamed up with IBM to utilize blockchain technology for cross-border supply chain management. Using blockchain to work with a network of shippers, freight forwarders, ocean carriers, ports and customs authorities, the intent is to digitize (read automate/disintermediate) global trade.

More recently (May 28, 2018) and closer to home, Maersk announced that it has deployed the first blockchain platform for marine insurance called insurwave in a joint venture between Guardtime, a software security provider, and EY. The platform is being used by Willis Towers Watson, MS Amlin and XL Catlin (got your attention?). Microsoft Azure is providing the blockchain technology using ACORD standards. Inefficiencies, beware! Microsoft and Guardtime intend to extend insurwave to the global logistics, marine cargo, energy and aviation sectors.

See also: How Insurance and Blockchain Fit  

Insurers that find themselves locked out of these types of large-scale initiatives will be left out in the cold.

We’re witnessing “SUDDENLY,” and we’d better get used to it.

Insurtech: The Year in Review

As we reach the end of 2017, the first full 12 months where insurtech has been recognized as a standalone investment segment, we wanted to reflect on what has been an incredible year.

From the start, we at Eos believed that insurtech would be driven globally, and that has certainly played out. This year, we’ve visited: Hong Kong, Amsterdam, New York, Las Vegas, Nigeria, Dubai, India, Singapore, Bermuda, Milan, St. Louis, Munich, Vienna, Paris, Zurich, Cologne, Chicago, San Francisco, Silicon Valley, Seattle and Toronto. We’ve expanded our geographic footprint to include the East and West coasts of the U.S. and India and have seen fantastic progress across our expanding portfolio. We’ve welcomed a number of new strategic partners, including Clickfox, ConVista and Dillon Kane Group, and launched our innovation center, EoSphere, with a focus on developing markets

At the start of the year, we published a series of articles looking at the key trends that we believed would influence insurtech and have incorporated these in our review of the year.

We hope you enjoy it! Comments, challenges and other perspectives, as always, would be greatly received.

2017: The year innovation became integral to the insurance sector

How are incumbents responding?

We are seeing a mixed response, but the direction of travel is hugely positive. A small number of top-tier players are embracing the opportunity and investing hundreds of millions, and many smaller incumbents with more modest budgets are opening up to innovation and driving an active agenda. The number sitting on the side lines, with a “wait and see” strategy is diminishing.

“If 2016 was the year when ‘some’ insurers started innovating, 2017 will be remembered as the year when ‘all’ insurers jumped on the bandwagon. And not a minute too soon! When I joined 3,800 insurance innovators in Las Vegas, we all realized that the industry is now moving forward at light speed, and the few remaining insurers who stay in the offline world risk falling behind.” Erik Abrahamson, CEO of Digital Fineprint

We are more convinced than ever that the insurance industry is at the start of an unprecedented period of change driven by technology that will result in a $1 trillion shift in value between those that embrace innovation and those that don’t.

Has anyone cracked the code yet? We don’t think so, but there are a small number of very impressive programs that will deliver huge benefits over the next two to three years to their organizations.

“We were pleased to see some of the hype surrounding insurtech die down in 2017. We’re now seeing a more considered reaction from (re)insurers. For example, there is less talk about the ‘Uber moment’ and more analysis of how technology can support execution of the corporate strategy. We have long argued that this is the right approach.” Chris Sandilands, partner at Oxbow Partners

Have insurers worked out how to work with startups? We think more work may be needed in this area….

See also: Insurtech: An Adventure or a Quest?  

The role of the tech giants

“Investors are scrambling for a piece of China’s largest online-only insurer… the hype could be explained by the ‘stars’ behind ZhongAn and its offering. Its major shareholders — Ping An Insurance (Group) Co., Alibaba Group Holding Ltd., Tencent Holdings Ltd.” – ChinaGoAbroad.com

“Tencent Establishes Insurance Platform WeSure Through WeChat and QQ” – YiCai Global

“Amazon is coming for the insurance industry — should we be worried?” – Insurance Business Magazine

“Aviva turns digital in Hong Kong with Tencent deal” – Financial Times

“Quarter of customers willing to trust Facebook for insurance” – Insurance Business Magazine

“Chinese Tech Giant Baidu Is Launching a $1 Billion Fund with China Life” – Fortune 

We are already well past the point of wondering whether tech giants like Google, Amazon, Facebook, Apple (GAFA) and Baidu, Alibaba, Tencent (BAT) are going to enter insurance. They are already here.

Notice the amount of activity being driven by the Chinese tech giants. Baidu, Alibaba and Tencent are transforming the market, and don’t expect them to stop at China.

The tech giants bring money, customer relationships, huge amounts of data and ability to interact with people at moments of truth and have distribution power that incumbents can only dream about. Is insurance a distraction to their core businesses? Perhaps — but they realize the potential in the assets that they have built. Regulatory complexity may drive a partnership approach, but we expect to see increasing levels of involvement from these players.

Role of developing markets

It’s been exciting to play an active role in the development of insurtech in developing markets. These markets are going to play a pivotal role in driving innovation in insurance and in many instances, will move ahead of more mature markets as a less constraining legacy environment allows companies to leapfrog to the most innovation solutions.

Importantly, new technologies will encourage financial inclusion and reduce under-insurance by lowering the cost of insurance, allowing more affordable coverage, extending distribution to reach those most at need (particularly through mobiles, where penetration rates are high) and launching tailored product solutions.

Interesting examples include unemployment insurance in Nigeria, policies for migrant workers in the Middle East, micro credit and health insurance in Kenya, a blockchain platform for markets in Asia and a mobile health platform in India.

Protection to prevention

At the heart of much of the technology-driven change and potential is the shift of insurance from a purely protection-based product to one that can help predict, mitigate or prevent negative events. This is possible with the ever-increasing amount of internal and external data being created and captured, but, more crucially, sophisticated artificial intelligence and machine learning tools that drive actionable insights from the data. In fact, insurers already own a vast amount of historical unstructured data, and we are seeing more companies unlocking value from this data through collaboration and partnerships with technology companies. Insurers are now starting to see data as a valuable asset.

The ability to understand specific risk characteristics in real time and monitor how they change over time rather than rely on historic and proxy information is now a reality in many areas, and this allows a proactive rather than reactive approach.

During 2017, we’ve been involved in this area in two very different product lines, life and health and marine insurance.

The convergence of life and health insurance and application of artificial intelligence combined with health tech and genomics is creating an opportunity to transform the life and health insurance market. We hope to see survival rates improving, tailored insurance solutions, an inclusion-based approach and reduced costs for insurers.

Marine insurance is also experiencing a shift due to technology

In the marine space, the ability to use available information from a multitude of sources to enhance underwriting, risk selection and pricing and drive active claims management practices is reshaping one of the oldest insurance lines. Concirrus, a U.K.-based startup, launched a marine analytics solution platform to spearhead this opportunity.

The emergence of the full stack digital insurer

Perhaps reflecting the challenges of working with incumbents, several companies have decided to launch a full-stack digital insurer.

We believe that this model can be successful if executed in the right way but remain convinced that a partnership-driven approach will generate the most impact in the sector in the short to medium term.

“A surprise for us has been the emergence of full-stack digital insurers. When Lemonade launched in 2016, the big story was that it had its own balance sheet. In 2017, we’ve seen a number of other digital insurers launch — Coya, One, Element, Ottonova in Germany, Alan in France, for example. Given the structure of U.K. distribution, we’re both surprised and not surprised that no full-stack digital insurers have launched in the U.K. (Gryphon appears to have branded itself a startup insurer, but we’ve not had confirmation of its business model).” – Chris Sandilands, partner, Oxbow Partners

Long term, what will a “full stack” insurer look like? We are already seeing players within the value chain striving to stay relevant, and startups challenging existing business models. Will the influence of tech giants and corporates in adjacent sectors change the insurance sector as we know it today?

Role of MGAs and intermediaries

Insurtech is threatening the role of the traditional broker in the value chain. Customers are able to connect directly, and the technology supports the gathering, analysis and exchange of high-quality information. Standard covers are increasingly data-driven, and the large reinsurers are taking advantage by going direct.

We expected to see disintermediation for simple covers, and this has started to happen. In addition, blockchain initiatives have been announced by companies like Maersk, Prudential and Allianz that will enable direct interaction between customers and insurers.

However, insurtech is not just bad news for brokers. In fact, we believe significant opportunities are being created by the emergence of technology and the associated volatility in the market place.

New risks, new products and new markets are being created, and the brokers are ideally placed to capitalize given their skills and capabilities. Furthermore, the rising rate environment represents an opportunity for leading brokers to demonstrate the value they can bring for more complex risks.

MGAs have always been a key part of the value chain, and we are now seeing the emergence of digital MGAs.

Digital MGAs are carving out new customer segments, channels and products. Traditional MGAs are digitizing their business models, while several new startups are testing new grounds. Four elements are coming together to create a perfect storm:

  1. Continuing excess underwriting capacity, especially in the P&C markets, is galvanizing reinsurers to test direct models. Direct distribution of personal lines covers in motor and household is already pervasive in many markets. A recent example is Sywfft direct Home MGA with partnerships with six brokers. Direct MGA models for commercial lines risks in aviation, marine, construction and energy are also being tested and taking root.
  2. Insurers and reinsurers are using balance sheet capital to provide back-stop to MGA startups. Startups like Laka are creating new models using excess of loss structures for personal lines products.
  3. Digital platforms are permitting MGAs to go direct to customers.
  4. New sources of data and machine learning are permitting MGAs to test new underwriting and claims capabilities and take on more balance sheet risk. Underwriting, and not distribution, is emerging as the core competency of MGAs.

Customer-driven approach

Three of the trends driving innovation that we highlighted at the start of the year centered on the customer and how technology will allow insurers to connect with customers at the “moment of truth”:

  • Insurance will be bought, sold, underwritten and serviced in fundamentally different ways.
  • External data and contextual information will become increasingly important.
  • Just-in-time, need- and exposure-based protection through mobile will be available.

Over time, we expect the traditional approach to be replaced with a customer-centric view that will drive convergence of traditional product lines and a breakdown of silo organization structures. We’ve been working with Clickfox on bringing journey sciences to insurance, and significant benefits are being realized by those insurers supporting this fundamental change in approach.

Interesting ideas that were launched or gained traction this year include Kasko, which provides insurance at point of sale; Cytora, which enables analysis of internal and external data both structured and unstructured to support underwriting; and Neosurance, providing insurance coverage through push notifications at time of need.

See also: Core Systems and Insurtech (Part 3)  

Partnerships and alliances critical for success

As discussed above, we believe partnerships and alliances will be key to driving success. Relying purely on internal capabilities will not be enough.

“The fascinating element for me to witness is the genuine surprise by insurance companies that tech firms are interested in ‘their’ market. The positive element for me is the evolving discovery of pockets of value that can be addressed and the initial engagement that is received from insurers. It’s still also a surprise that insurers measure progress in years, not quarters, months or weeks.” – Andrew Yeoman, CEO of Concirrus

We highlighted three key drivers at the start of the year:

  • Ability to dynamically innovate will become the most important competitive advantage.
  • Optionality and degrees of freedom will be key.
  • Economies of skill and digital capabilities will matter more than economies of scale.

The move toward partnership built on the use of open platforms and APIs seen in fintech is now prevalent in insurance.

“We are getting, through our partnerships, access to the latest technology, a deeper understanding of the end customers and a closer engagement with them, and this enables us to continue to be able to better design insurance products to meet the evolving needs and expectations of the public.” Munich Re Digital Partners

Where next?

Key trends to look out for in 2018

  • Established tech players in the insurance space becoming more active in acquiring or partnering with emerging solutions to augment their business models
  • Tech giants accelerating pace of innovation, with Chinese taking a particularly active role in AI applications
  • Acceleration of the trend from analogue to digital and digital to AI
  • Shift in focus to results rather than hype and to later-stage business models that can drive real impact
  • Valuation corrections with down rounds, consolidation and failures becoming more common as the sector matures
  • Continued growth of the digital MGA
  • Emergence of developing-market champions
  • Increasing focus on how innovation can be driven across all parts of the value chain and across product lines, including commercial lines
  • Insurers continuing to adapt their business models to improve their ability to partner effectively with startups — winners will start to emerge

“As we enter 2018, I think that we’ll see a compression of the value chain as the capital markets move ever closer to the risk itself and business models that syndicate the risk with the customer — active risk management is the new buzzword.” – Andrew Yeoman, CEO Concirrus

We’re excited to be at the heart of what will be an unprecedented period of change for the insurance industry.

A quick thank you to our partners and all those who have helped and supported us during 2017. We look forward to working and collaborating with you in 2018.

How Is Marine the Heart of Insurtech?

Who would have thought marine insurance would be at the center of the insurtech revolution? The relationship between insurtech and marine insurance is not an obvious one for many people.

Marine is one of the oldest and most traditional classes of business, the origins of Lloyds of London, when from 1686 members of the shipping industry congregated in the coffee house of Edward Lloyd to arrange early forms of marine insurance.

However, two recent announcements firmly place marine in the center of the technology revolution affecting insurance.

First, Maersk announced they are building a blockchain-based marine insurance platform with EY, Guardtime, Microsoft and several insurance partners. Second, a U.K.-based technology company, called Concirrus, announced the launch of the first AI-powered marine insurance analytics platform.

At Eos, this was not surprising.

See also: Insurance Needs a New Vocabulary  

In the first half of 2017, as part of our thesis-driven investment approach, we highlighted commercial insurance as a key area of focus and within that our first product vertical to focus on was marine insurance. What led us to this conclusion?

Commercial marine insurance is a $30 billion premium market, it’s complex and fragmented, and through our analysis we identified a significant potential shift in profit pools over the next few years. Importantly, the emergence of IoT and other devices has created a wealth of data within the industry. Marine also sits at the heart of global supply chain logistics.

During our deep dive into the sector and having spoken with more than 40 market participants across various parts of the value chain, it became apparent that marine insurers (and shippers) have never had so much data (internal and external) available to them, and many don’t have the tools or skill set to take advantage of it.

Growing competition, underwriting capacity and downward pressure on pricing has given little room to maneuver, but we were intrigued and kept digging.

The ability to gather and analyze these new information sources is helpful, but more important will be driving actionable insights through well-informed decision making based on high-quality, real-time data and analytics to improve risk selection, pricing and claim management while helping the insured better manage risk. As with many parts of insurtech, the underlying driver is the move from pure risk transfer to risk mitigation, and from prevention to prediction.

The creation of marine analytics solution platforms provide tailored insights to users, which is an important first step. Currently, software and tech providers to the marine industry are fragmented, with no dominant vendors and no joined up, end-to-end solutions.

As the market matures, the ability to harness analytics capability at the front end with improved efficiency at the back end through blockchain or other initiatives creates an even more compelling story and is an area we will be watching with interest.

Why to Worry About the Law of The Sea

The seizure on March 26, 2015, of the Marshall Islands-flagged Maersk Tigris cargo ship by Iranian forces off its coast at the Strait of Hormuz on a years-old dispute over containers is something that should get everyone’s attention. What is even more troubling than the seizure of a commercial vessel is that Maersk had agreed to settle the dispute. Iran is appealing for more money in the courts, but, rather than let the courts proceed, took the matter into its own hands.

Understand that one fifth of the world’s oil passes through the Strait of Hormuz in a given year.

We know that piracy, especially off the east coast of Africa and in the vast Asian Pacific, has become a major concern to shippers. So much so that Rolls Royce has announced that one of the benefits of its proposed crewless ship is that it would be much easier to take down pirates, because there will not be the crew hostages to deal with, as there are today. However, if nations begin to seize ships outside the law and with as flimsy an excuse as Iran has in the Maersk case, this is cause for alarm.

While the U.S. will be escorting U.S.-flagged vessels in the area of the seizure, our military fleet is simply inadequate to serve all potential hot spots. Even with escort protection, the risks of confrontation accelerate. Confrontation can include blockades, using vessels to buzz or interfere with navigation or otherwise harass shipping and their escorts, firing shots across the bow, ramming and even firing on vessels and their escorts. Recall that the U.S. entered World War I and World War II and increased our presence in Vietnam as the result of the Germans’ sinking of the Lusitania, the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor and the very questionable U.S.-North Vietnamese Gulf of Tonkin incident—all military events involving the sea.

Not all military maneuvers on the seas are necessarily problematic. The U.S. Coast Guard has become adept in hunting down drug traffickers and human smugglers in U.S. waters and cooperates with Central and South American countries to interdict traffickers in the greater Gulf of Mexico. However, these small ships, submarines and speedboats are not like the huge container vessels that large shipping conglomerates operate worldwide.

Even so, there are times when even larger ships pose challenges to countries and militaries, generally for contraband, drugs or illegal shipments of weapons. In 2013, Panamanian officials detained the North Korean-flagged Chong Chon Gang en route from Cuba to North Korea on suspicion of drug trafficking. The investigation uncovered cargo that looked like weapon systems subject to international sanctions against delivery to North Korea. The Panamanian Government consulted with the UN, and the dispute was resolved. In this incident, international law was followed. In the Iranian incident, it is much less clear that its military had the authority to seize the Maersk ship over a payment dispute already in the court system under appeal.

The Shipping Juggernaut

The World Shipping Council reported that world container shipping alone in 2009 produced an annual economic contribution of:

  • Direct gross output or GDP Contribution — $ 183.3 Billion
  • Direct capital expenditure — $ 29.4 Billion
  • Direct jobs — 4.2 million
  • Compensation to those employees $ 27.2 Billion

The global supply matrix relies heavily on container and bulk shipping to move raw materials, parts and components and complete product between producers, suppliers and customers to virtually every large-vessel navigable port in the world. Some of the biggest container vessels can carry 11,000 containers, and the loss of even one could strain world marine insurance resources. The increase in traffic and size of vessels has led to major efforts to widen the Panama and Suez canals. The Port of Long Beach 20-mile Alameda Corridor went online in 2002 to speed rail traffic under the streets of Los Angeles to remove a major bottleneck to the U.S.’s busiest container port. We can only speculate that one reason why Warren Buffett purchased the Burlington Northern Santa Fe (BNSF) railroad in 2009 was because he saw the spectacular increase in container rail traffic from ports on all U.S. coasts to all parts of the interior.

The modern insurance industry has its roots and owes even much of its policy language to marine insurance beginning with Lloyds during the first tranche of globalization when Britain and other European powers needed to cover commercial trade to and from their vast worldwide colonies. The ocean is big business.

Law of the Seas Doctrine

Who owns the sea? We all do. However, after World War II, many countries led by the U.S. increased the size of their territorial waters for security, fishing and other purposes. In 1967, the UN decided it was time to convene a group to develop an international law of the sea. Unlike trade agreements, the international law of the sea is a framework not for tariffs, taxes and other international economic activities, but for how we may use the sea as our collective heritage. We might compare the international law of the sea to the rules promulgated by the National Parks Service for what people can and cannot do while visiting, working in or otherwise using the natural resources of Yellowstone Park.

The convention can be summarized as follows: The seas are open and free to all states, coastal or landlocked. Passage shall be free and unhindered. The sea is the heritage of all humanity, which includes conservation and protection of these resources from pollution or overfishing or other adverse activities. The seas shall be used for peaceful purposes. Ships and states have a duty to render assistance to vessels and persons in trouble. Cooperation is expected to repress piracy.

These are some of the key provisions relevant to the discussion of the Iranian seizure:

  • 12-nautical-mile limit on territorial waters.
  • “Ships and aircraft of all countries are allowed ‘transit passage’ through straits used for international navigation; States bordering the straits can regulate navigational and other aspects of passage”
  • “All other states have freedom of navigation and overflight in the EEZ [Exclusive Economic Zone], as well as freedom to lay submarine cables and pipelines”
  • “Land-locked and geographically disadvantaged states have the right to participate on an equitable basis in exploitation of an appropriate part of the surplus of the living resources of the EEZ’s of coastal states of the same region or sub-region; highly migratory species of fish and marine mammals are accorded special protection”
  • “All states enjoy the traditional freedoms of navigation, overflight, scientific research and fishing on the high seas; they are obliged to adopt, or cooperate with other states in adopting measures to manage and conserve living resources”
  • “Land-locked states have the right of access to and from the sea and enjoy freedom of transit through the territory of transit states”
  • “State parties are obliged to settle by peaceful means their disputes concerning the interpretation or application of the convention”
  • “Disputes can be submitted to the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea established under the convention, to the International Court of Justice, or to arbitration. Conciliation is also available, and, in certain circumstances, submission to it would be compulsory. The tribunal has exclusive jurisdiction over deep seabed mining disputes.” (United-Nations 2012)

Iran is a 1982 signatory of the International Law of the Sea and included this statement:

In accordance with article 310 of the Convention on the Law of the Sea, the Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran seizes the opportunity at this solemn moment of signing the Convention, to place on the records its “understanding” in relation to certain provisions of the Convention…that only states parties to the Law of the Sea Convention shall be entitled to benefit from the contractual rights created therein. [including] The right of Transit passage through straits used for international navigation…The notion of “Exclusive Economic Zone” (Part V). – All matters regarding the International Seabed Area and the Concept of “Common Heritage of mankind” (Part XI)…In the light of customary international law, the provisions of article 21, read in association with article 19 (on the Meaning of Innocent Passage) and article 25 (on the Rights of Protection of the Coastal States), recognize (though implicitly) the rights of the Coastal States to take measures to safeguard their security interests including the adoption of laws and regulations regarding, inter alia the requirements of prior authorization for warships willing to exercise the right of innocent passage through the territorial sea…The right referred to in article 125 regarding access to and from the sea and freedom of transit of Land-locked States is one which is derived from mutual agreement of States concerned based on the principle of reciprocity.

However, Iran included this provision which may have led to its thinking it could lawfully detain the Maersk vessel.

Furthermore, with regard to “Compulsory Procedures Entailing Binding Decisions” the Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran, while fully endorsing the Concept of settlement of all international disputes by peaceful means, and recognizing the necessity and desirability of settling, in an atmosphere of mutual understanding and cooperation, issues relating to the interpretation and application of the Convention on the Law of the Sea, at this time will not pronounce on the choice of procedures pursuant to articles 287 and 298 and reserves its positions to be declared in due time.”

We can expect that there will be incidents that involve questionable cargo subject to international restrictions and conventions, such as drugs, piracy, and prohibited weapons. We can expect that some of these interdictions will involve questions of fact that will be disputed or will later be found to be the result of false or misleading information or observation. However, disputes over cargo payments or other commercial activities whether between commercial ventures or states and commercial ventures deserve to be heard in arbitration procedures, courts of law or other internationally sanctioned dispute resolution venues.

Global trade has become too important for individual states to begin regulating the high seas on their own. There are many places of narrow passage like the Strait of Hormuz that border on many countries. We need to be especially vigilant in these areas and all agree to this specific International Law of the Sea provision: “Ships and aircraft of all countries are allowed ‘transit passage’ through straits used for international navigation; States bordering the straits can regulate navigational and other aspects of passage.”

We need also to prevent harassment or other restrictive activities so that border states in these narrow straits only introduce navigation and rights of passage regulations that are consistent with legitimate safety and security concerns. Slowages, frequent boardings, detentions and other activities that unnecessarily and intentionally restrain trade should be vigorously protested and prosecuted by international bodies and global industry.