Tag Archives: getaround

Driverless Vehicles: Brace for Impact

On June 26, Waymo (Google’s autonomous car firm), signed a deal under which Avis Budget Group will provide “fleet support and maintenance services” to Phoenix-area Waymo vehicles. Waymo uses Chrysler Pacifica minivans to autonomously shuttle Phoenix residents around town. Its first fleet of 100 minivans quickly grew into an order for 500 more.

The Waymo/Avis agreement may only be a pilot, but the implications are enormous. Not unlike standard cab companies, Waymo realized that a fleet of autonomous vehicles would need cleaning and maintenance throughout the day and storage throughout the night. When practical matters like auto cleaning and storage become news enough for a press release, something big is going on.

Here are some fun facts:

  • According to USA Today, Avis’ stock rose 14% on the news.
  • The Chrysler Pacifica was chosen, in large part, because it could close its own doors. Waymo usage experts theorized that riders might often hop out and forget to close the door.
  • Within hours of the Waymo announcement, Apple likewise unveiled a deal where Hertz Global would manage its autonomous fleet.

Autonomous vehicles have picked up the pace of disruption over the last two years. What will life be like when the Autonomy of Things takes on many of our everyday behaviors or occupations, like driving? Will we be safer? Will we need insurance? Will auto manufacturers cover accidents via product liability? Who will cover bodily injury or property damage? How will risk products be changed to fit this new model? Is there an insurance right-road to surviving autonomy?

See also: The Evolution in Self-Driving Vehicles  

Is Autonomy Impact Still Underrated?

There has been a lot of talk and certainly a wealth of words written on the impact of auto autonomy, and safety is at the top of the concerns and promises of autonomous vehicles. Insurers are, of course, focused on how autonomous vehicles might cause a decline in the need for auto insurance.

The pace of development, rollout, experimentation and expansion of autonomous vehicles has far exceeded original expectations. In his blog, Peter Diamandis (XPrize Founder) noted that a former Tesla and BMW executive said that self-driving cars would start to kill car ownership in just five years. John Zimmer, the cofounder and president of Lyft, said that car ownership would “all but end” in cities by 2025.

The Wall Street Journal reported in July 2016 that auto insurance represents nearly a third of all premiums for the P&C industry, with projections that 80% could evaporate over the next few decades as autonomous vehicles are introduced, some of them replacing legacy vehicles and some created for shared transportation. At the same time, U.S. government support strengthened in September 2016 when federal auto safety regulators released their first set of guidelines, sending a clear signal to automakers that the door was wide open for driverless cars and betting that the nation’s highways will be safer with more cars driven by machines instead of people.

Those statements, among others, might cause some scrambling. Manufacturers are working frantically to partner with AI providers, cab services and ridesharing services such as Uber, Lyft and Waymo. Naysayers will note that rural areas will be highly unlikely to use autonomous vehicles soon, and it’s true that the largest impact may be in urban areas. But if car ownership were even cut by 5% by 2030, a tremendous number of auto manufacturers and auto insurers would be affected.

Autonomy and its insurance impact isn’t limited to personal autos. Truck company Otto is testing self-driving commercial trucks — a necessary automation that could help alleviate the growing lack of truck drivers. Husqvarna has several models of autonomous lawn mowers on the market. Yara and Rolls Royce are among companies working on autonomous ships. Case, John Deere and Autonomous Tractor Corporation have all been developing driverless tractors.

In nearly every one of these cases, there are safety benefits and disruptive insurance implications, but there are also revenue growth opportunities for those that think more broadly and “outside the box.” From developing partnerships with automotive companies to leveraging the autonomous vehicle data for new services, each offers alternative revenue streams to counter the decline of traditional auto insurance. The key is experimenting with these technologies to find alternative “products and services” and develop an ecosystem of partners to support this, before the competition does.

Share and Transportation as a Service — Insurers May Like

In our report, A New Age of Insurance:  Growth Opportunity for Commercial and Specialty Insurance in a Time of Market Disruption, we cite a report from RethinkX, The Disruption of Transportation and the Collapse of the Internal-Combustion Vehicle and Oil Industries, which says that by 2030 (within 10 years of regulatory approval of autonomous vehicles), 95% of U.S. passenger miles traveled will be served by on-demand autonomous electric vehicles owned by fleets, not individuals, in a new business model called “transport-as-a-service” (TaaS). The report says the approval of autonomous vehicles will unleash a highly competitive market-share grab among existing and new pre-TaaS (ride-hailing) companies in expectation of the outsized rewards of trillions of dollars of market opportunities and network effects.

Welcome to the adolescence of the sharing economy and transportation as a service. Autonomy isn’t the only road for vehicle progress. Vehicle sharing is growing and will remain in vogue for some time. Just as Airbnb and HomeAway have given rise to new insurance products, Zipcar and Getaround and Uber have given rise to new P&C products.

At the same time, a merging of public and private transportation and a pathway to free transportation is in the early stages of being created in the TaaS model. This will shift risk from individuals to commercial entities, governments or other businesses that provide the public transportation, creating commercial lines product opportunities beyond traditional “public transportation.”

Vehicle users, whether they are riders, borrowers, sharers or public entities, are going to need innovative coverage options. Tesla and Volvo may be promising some level of auto coverage for owners of autonomous vehicles, but that kind of blanket coverage is likely to mimic an airline’s coverage of passengers and cargo — it will be limited. Those who lend their vehicle, through a software-based consolidator, such as Getaround, will need coverage that goes beyond their auto policy.

In the past few weeks, we’ve also seen how cyber attacks can undermine freight and shipping, not to mention systems. Nearly all of these service-oriented options will require new types of service-level coverage. Autonomous freight may be safer in transit, but in some ways it may also be less secure.

The lessons appear to be found in brainstorming. Technology is breeding diversity in service use and ownership. There will be new coverage types and new insurance products needed.

See also: Will You Own a Self-Driving Vehicle?  

Up Next … Flying Vehicles

Remember the movie “Back to the Future” and the Jetsons flying cars that were so cool? Well, they are quickly becoming a cool reality. A June 2017 Forbes article says flying cars are moving rapidly from fiction to reality, with the first applications of flying vehicles for recreational activities in the next five years. The article says that, in the past five years, at least eight companies have conducted their first flight tests, and several more are expected to follow suit, indicative of the frenzied activity in this space.

Companies such as PAL-VTerrafugia, AeromobilEhangE-VoloUrban AeronauticsKitty Hawk and Lilium Aviation completed test flights of their flying car prototypes, with PAL-V going further by initiating pre-sales of its Liberty Pioneer model flying car, which the company aims to deliver by the end 2018. This sounds like Tesla and its pre-sales move!

Not to be left behind … ride-sharing companies are aggressively entering the space. Uber launched the Uber Elevate program, with a focus on making flying vehicles transport a reality by bringing together government agencies, vehicle manufacturers and regulators. Google and Skype are entering the space by investing in start-ups: Google in Kitty Hawk and Skype in Lilium Aviation. Not to be left behind, Airbus has unveiled a number of flying car concepts, with plans to launch a personal flying car by 2018. Airbus also plans to build a mass transit flying vehicle…the potential next TaaS option.

So, it pays for insurers to keep their attention on autonomous vehicle trends … because it is more than the personal autonomous vehicle … it is the transformation of the entire transportation industry and will have a significant impact on premium and growth for auto insurers. As we recently found in our commercial and specialty insurance report, the transportation industry is rapidly changing and new technologies may be lending themselves to safety, but the world itself isn’t necessarily growing any safer.

Risk doesn’t end. Insurers will always be helping individuals and companies manage risk. The key will be using the trends to rapidly adapt to a shift to the new digital age. Insurers will need to understand and value new risks and offer innovative products and services that meet the changing needs in this shift during the digital age.

What Implications From Car Sharing?

Although ride sharing and home sharing are the mainstays of the sharing economy, a new field is rapidly presenting challenges and opportunities. This is the rise of car sharing.

Car sharing refers to an online marketplace where travelers can connect with a community of local car owners and rent any car they want, wherever they want it.

Two Types of Car Sharing

1. Fleet car sharing

This is where businesses such as car2go or communauto purchase and insure a large fleet of vehicles. These may be based in one location or free-floating. There are even companies that specialize in car sharing at airports.

2. Peer-to-peer (P2P) car sharing

The second type of car sharing is where individual car owners rent their personal vehicles to private individuals.

They do this using a peer-to-peer company that acts as a broker and insurer. Currently, two of the largest players in the peer-to-peer car sharing industry are Turo and GetAround.

See also: What to Learn From Sharing Economy  

How does it work?

Once car owners have registered their cars with Turo (for instance), they can use an app on their smartphone to notify potential clients that their vehicle is available for hire at a set location and for a set period.

For example, the owners can drive to work in the morning and park their cars; while they are at work, a renter can pick up a car to run a few errands and then return it before the end of the workday.

Turo Offers Significant Benefits

Based on U.S. statistics in 2015, Turo anticipates that Canadian drivers can expect to earn approximately CAN$500 per month. Of course, individual earnings will vary depending on the value of the vehicle and how often it is available.

In the U.S., one authority claims that car sharers can earn anywhere between $600 and $1000 a month, depending on the type of car. Might not get much for this:

Screen Shot 2016-11-29 at 6.03.17 PM

But this:

Screen Shot 2016-11-29 at 6.03.52 PM

Oh, baby!

Turo also offers insurance packages for its participants. According to its website, Turo provides “protection against physical damage up to its actual cash value, for collision and most ‘comprehensive’ causes, including theft.” Turo also promises that participants will be covered by $1 million in liability insurance.

The Love-Love-Love Relationship of Car Sharing

Car Owners Love It

This marketplace allows car owners to earn extra money to help offset the cost of owning a vehicle. And because technology has made it possible to connect people with little or no advance notice, we are seeing a growing number of car owners capitalizing on the trend and using their vehicles to generate extra income.

Consumers Love It

Consumers without cars also love car sharing. Whether they live locally or are traveling for business or pleasure, car-sharing is an attractive option because it’s a great alternative to typical rental companies. In some cases, it even allows people to forgo car ownership altogether because they can simply rent a vehicle whenever they need it.

Pete Moraga, the spokesperson for the Insurance Information Network of California, says, “You’re seeing it primarily in college cities because it works very well for a college campus where students just need cars to do errands and not for the full day.”

Further, recent research found that car sharing services are now available in more than 33 countries and account for almost 5 million users. Not bad… and the growth continues.

See also: The Sharing Economy and Accountability

Environmentalists Love It

Those who care deeply about our environment love car sharing because it means fewer vehicles on the road, less money invested in non-renewable resources and a reduction in the carbon footprint on the environment.

Unique Challenges for Insurers

So what does this mean for the insurance industry? A lot.

Not surprisingly, car insurance companies haven’t quite fallen in love with this new world of car sharing as they are finding that it poses some interesting challenges.

Here are several problems that could affect basic coverage for clients:

  1. LIVERY – Will clients’ personal policies cover their cars if they rent out their vehicles? Most P2P companies understand the need for commercial auto insurance, but it’s always best to confirm that the coverage is adequate.
  2. WHO IS DRIVING? Vehicles that are involved in car sharing are exposed to a greater risk of accidents because they are being driven by drivers who are unfamiliar with the vehicles. Add bad weather and heavy traffic, and owners are putting their vehicles at serious risk. The concern for insurers is whether the client’s premiums are accurately reflecting the increased risk involved.
  3. LIABILITY – This is one of the most significant issues for personal auto insurers. Who pays if the car is involved in an accident while participating in car-sharing? Some car-sharing companies are facing this challenge by offering primary coverage in the event of an accident; some are offering comprehensive and collision coverage; and some are even offering third-party liability coverage.
  4. TRANSITION – Who is going to pay for damages if there is a dispute about when an accident happened? Did it happen when the owner was using it, or when the renter was? To help alleviate the confusion, some P2P companies are developing data recorders and phone apps to track mileage, time and who is driving the vehicle.
  5. DEPRECIATION – Who will cover the cost of depreciation if a car-sharing driver wrecks a vehicle? Will it be the P2P company’s insurance plan or the car owner’s?
  6. EXCLUSIONS – Most insurance policies contain exclusions that will deny coverage if a person has an accident while driving a lent or rented vehicle.

Some of these questions have simple answers, but many will not.

Ron Burns, vice president at Guarantee Company of North America, said this concerning this issue, “Unless we have some changes in the actual policy wordings, there are going to be a lot of insurers who stand up and say we won’t pay for that loss.”

Intact Offers Insurance to Car Sharers

In response to these concerns, Turo has partnered with Intact to offer commercial auto insurance specifically for car owners who are participating in car sharing.

How does it work?

While the vehicle is being delivered to the renter and during the rental period, the vehicle is covered by Turo’s commercial insurance. When the vehicle is not being delivered or rented, the owner is protected as usual under her Intact personal auto insurance policy.

All car owners who are planning to participate in peer-to-peer car rental through a company such as Turo MUST inform their insurance broker to ensure that their coverage is sufficient and accurate.

Does Turo Insurance Replace Personal Auto Insurance?

No. Car owners need to make sure that they have personal auto insurance, as well. In fact, to even list their car on the Turo marketplace, they need to investigate insurance plans with any of the following carriers:

Do Car Sharers Need Separate Insurance Plans?

Yes. The Turo insurance card does not satisfy state or provincial “financial responsibility” requirements and cannot be used to register a personal vehicle.

Do Insurance Providers Need to Change Their Strategy?

Yes. With more car sharing startups entering the marketplace, and the relative ease with which savvy car owners can use their assets to generate income, it is clear that the sharing economy is poised for significant growth.

See also: Sharing Economy: The Concept of Trust  

Insurance carriers need to ask themselves some honest questions as they boldly face this new customer climate:

  • How can we adequately face the new challenges in this sharing economy?
  • Should we create a unique policy just for car sharers?
  • Should we offer them a commercial policy, an excess policy or a base limit?
  • How can we stay innovative and capture the changing marketplace?

At a minimum, insurance carriers have a responsibility to engage with and educate policy-holders on many of the issues associated with car sharing.

Car sharing may not be the biggest concern in the minds of insurance carriers, but it should at least be on their radar.

A New Ride-Sharing Service Raises Even More Questions

The U.S. has seen an explosion in what is often referred to as the emerging “sharing economy” or “collaborative consumption.” In an increasingly connected society where most people have access to mobile communication devices, peer-to-peer services are springing up, based on mobile apps that consumers can use to access transportation services that historically have either not existed or were controlled by often highly regulated business or government entities.

One might argue that this is not a new concept, given that hitchhiking has been around since not long after the wheel was invented and was quite common in the 1950s and 1960s until it fell out of vogue as its inherent dangers gained more attention from the media and increasing numbers of consumers owned or had access to automobiles or mass transit.

But what we’re witnessing today is a relatively new phenomenon. Uber, Zimride, Lyft, ZipCar, Turo, GetAround, TaskRabbit, JollyWheels, RentMyCar, Zilok, CityCarShare, bla, bla, bla, bla, bla….

Which brings us to BlaBlaCar, the latest incarnation of car sharing. Founded in France in 2006, BlaBlaCar now claims to operate in about a dozen European countries and is exploring expanding into other countries, such as India and Brazil. BlaBlaCar bills itself as a “ride sharing” mechanism, as opposed to “car sharing.” That falls somewhere between fee-based hitchhiking and a somewhat irregular share-the-expense car pooling arrangement. Details on how the system operates can be found at the company’s web site.

BlaBlaCar currently does not operate in the U.S. There is some question as to whether it can be as successful in the U.S. as it claims to be in Europe. Owning and operating a vehicle in Europe is far more costly than it is in the U.S. There is also a perception that Europeans may be more trusting of, or accustomed to, riding with strangers than Americans are. In addition, there are social issues to consider in the U.S. For example, a BlaBlaCar driver can refuse to transport particular passengers. If such a driver is white and a declined passenger applicant is black, would there be civil rights issues that could be addressed by claims or suits for discrimination?

The question addressed by this article is, if BlaBlaCar were to begin operations in the U.S., would the personal auto insurance policies of its drivers cover this type of activity? According to the terms and conditions on BlaBlaCar’s web site and media articles about their service, most auto insurance in Europe covers this exposure because there is no “profit” involved. The passenger fee is referred to as a way to share the cost of a trip. The terms and conditions include a stringent hold-harmless provision and a liability cap to protect BlaBlaCar.

However, the company’s position on how personal auto insurance responds in Europe would be immaterial if it were to commence operations in the U.S. Many, if not most, personal auto policies in the U.S. may exclude BlaBlaCar activities regardless of whether a “profit” is sought or made. The decision could depend on the facts of each situation and the exclusion wording in the policy. The first question is whether there can be assurance that a driver is not making a profit. Second, the policy language may not consider profit to be an issue. For example, these are the two most common exclusions found in U.S. personal auto policies:

  • We do not provide liability coverage for any “insured”…for that “insured’s” liability arising out of the ownership or operation of a vehicle while it is being used as a public or livery conveyance. This Exclusion (A.5.) does not apply to a share-the-expense car pool.
  • We do not provide liability coverage for any person…for that person’s liability arising out of the ownership or operation of a vehicle while it is being used to carry persons or property for a fee. This exclusion (A.5.) does not apply to a share-the-expense car pool.

This language is taken from two different edition dates of the “ISO-standard” personal auto policy. In the case of use as a “public or livery conveyance,” ISO’s filing memorandum stated that the intent of this exclusion is to preclude coverage for vehicles available for “hire” to the general public for the transportation of people or cargo (e.g., taxis, sightseeing vans and package delivery services). The exclusion is not contingent on the profitability of the person or enterprise holding their vehicle out to the general public for hire.

In the case of a vehicle used to “carry persons or property for a fee,” there is no mention whatsoever of whether this fee generates a profit for the owner/driver. In one case, this exclusion was held to apply to someone who used his pickup truck to transport a friend’s son’s belongings to college in exchange for gas money.

However, both exclusions admittedly exempt a “share-the-expense car pool.” So what is meant by a “car pool”? One dictionary definition describes it as: “an arrangement between people to make a regular journey in a single vehicle, typically with each person taking turns to drive the others.”

Note the reference to “regular” and alternating as drivers. On the other hand, Wikipedia’s discussion of the term “carpool” implies a potentially broader concept that could include how BlaBlaCar operates. This muddies the water to the point that no blanket statement can be made about how U.S. personal auto policies might respond to claims arising from BlaBlaCar and similar ride-sharing services. If this were to become a significant exposure, one might expect U.S. insurers to define “car pool” in a way that precludes coverage for these services.

In the past year or two, we have seen various forms of “car sharing” exclusionary endorsements introduced by ISO and individual insurers, though many of them still do not fully address the “share-the-expense car pool” situation. The only conclusion we can reach at this point is that how a vehicle is being used and how that use fits with an insurance policy’s insuring agreements and exclusions are becoming much more important and more difficult to determine.

The insurance industry is not known for its innovation nor its ability to respond quickly to emerging social changes. The usual reaction is to exclude an unanticipated exposure until the industry can reasonably measure and predict the risk of loss. The growth of car- and ride-sharing (not to mention home-sharing) is something that will need to be closely monitored by the industry.

Is That Opportunity Calling in the 'Sharing Economy'? (Part 2)

Last week, we looked at the potential of the sharing economy and some of its top performers.This week, we’ll explore how insurance fits into that picture.

Start-ups in the car-sharing economy are attracting major investors who believe in their business model. There is, however, one area in which start-ups have not been able to gain traction—insurance. Many tell of cold calling insurance companies; some have reached out to insurance executives via LinkedIn. A few have been successful. For example, Getaround, a car-sharing service, was able to work closely with insurers to secure coverage by delivering a solid risk model. Further, the company is collecting information on its consumers to help start providing the data that insurance companies need to underwrite car-sharing activities. However, success is not the norm.

One major insurer, for example, specifically rewrote its personal auto policies to exclude car-sharing. A company spokesperson for another large insurer stated that, “The owner could put their current coverage for personal use of the vehicle in jeopardy as the act of making the vehicle available for rental purposes could inherently change the risk profile of the vehicle. And, by entering into commercial arrangements with their vehicle, the insured may risk being unable to secure auto coverage from our company in the future.”

Legislators have also gotten into the game. A few states have started to make inroads into the insurance challenge. For example, California and Oregon both state that a personal auto policy cannot be considered commercial, even if the owner participates in car sharing. However, the law also declares that the auto-sharing company, not the owner’s insurer, is responsible for any damage caused during car-sharing activities. In other states, legislation has not been as supportive. For example, New York state issued a cease-and-desist order against RelayRides when its insurance coverage was declared “illegal and inadequate.”

A few innovative companies are experimenting with different insurance models. MetroMile, for example, lets drivers pay for insurance by the mile. Drivers simply plug a device, called the Metranome, into the car’s onboard diagnostic switch to count miles driven. A UK-based company, jFloat, allows consumers to buy into a “collaborative consumption self-insured pool” through the Web. A reinsurer backs the pool when claims reach over the maximum amount. While these particular models do not directly apply to the car-sharing business today, they are heading in the right direction. It’s companies like these that are thinking about how to combine insurance with emerging technologies that may provide a disruptive insurance model for the sharing economy.

In the meantime, car-sharing enthusiasts are not idly sitting by waiting for insurance companies to respond. Instead, they have been reaching out to insurers and legislators to help them better understand the business and risk models. The goal is to provide insight into the needs of the car-sharing market and work with insurers and legislators to develop solutions. While it is to be expected that companies like RelayRides and Getaround would be proactive, a new consumers group has also emerged. Called Peers, it represents the renters’ side of the equation, advocating for their needs and their protection. Even universities are getting into the mix to help create solutions. For example, the University of California at Berkeley’s Transportation Sustainability Research Center regularly publishes a report on the auto-sharing industry. Its conference on the topic will host a session on “Insuring Shared-Use Mobility Services.”

Investors, consumers, governments and legislative bodies are all weighing in on the car-sharing market. The only industry that has remained relatively silent is insurance.

Next week, we’ll look at how insurance companies can evaluate the sharing economy opportunity in light of their individual business models and risk appetites.

The 'Sharing Economy': What It Means for Insurers (Part 1 of 3)

Insurers have always been at the forefront of responding to user needs. Direct marketing and online portals make it easier for consumers to understand and purchase insurance. Usage-based insurance (UBI) allows safe drivers, particularly those who drive less, to reduce their premiums. Even insurance company-sponsored coffee houses offer a unique way to gain financial service knowledge and one-on-one access to experts.

Today, a different type of opportunity exists that may help insurers not only meet changing consumer needs but gain first-mover advantage in the process. Called the “sharing economy,” this market involves renting privately or company-owned assets—generally cars or homes—primarily through an online, peer-to-peer network. While the car-sharing market in North America is exploding, few insurers have even begun to explore this market.

As people continue to seek new opportunities in this economy, and as Millennials begin to take control, it’s likely that this idea of “sharing” will not only thrive but expand. The question is: Can insurance companies make a reasonable profit from this market? If so, how will they adapt their models to meet the new consumer demands?

To begin answering these questions, we will take a look at three areas. In this article, the first part, we’ll define the sharing economy and examine some of the innovative models already in play. Then we’ll discuss the insurance challenges that sharing-economy companies are facing, and the insurance industry’s response. Finally, we’ll look at four steps insurers can take to begin evaluating the sharing economy as a viable business opportunity.

Access trumps ownership

The sharing economy offers a fast and efficient way for owners of assets and renters to connect through online services. Two main stars have emerged in the sharing economy: auto and home. Companies like RelayRides and Getaround can help a consumer rent a car for a few hours of errands or even enjoy an SUV for a weekend in the mountains. The other main sector, home rental, allows owners to rent out their homes or simply a room on a short-term basis through companies like Airbnb. As the sharing economy branches out, owners are renting out other assets such as parking spaces, tools and camping gear.

It’s all about monetizing unused capacity of an asset for owners. For renters, it’s about gaining quick and easy access to those assets without being bogged down by ownership. Access, in a sense, becomes a service that is paid for per time increment or by distance.

Much of this market is being driven by the Millennials who grew up with the ideas of sharing, renting and paying small transactional fees for access to things such as music and movies. This generation has been slow to move out of their parents’ houses, and many delay getting their driver’s license for a few years. They simply don’t value ownership the way previous generations have. That means sales are down for this generation, especially on large items such as cars.

As the sharing economy becomes more popular, large companies are jumping into the mix. For example, Avis paid $500 million for Zipcar to gain access to the peer-to-peer market. Daimler’s Car2Go charges 38 cents per minute including fuel, insurance and parking. And GM invested in RelayRides to allow peer-to-peer rentals of OnStar-enabled cars.

There’s a reason consumers and corporations are embracing this model. Forbes predicts that the global sharing economy will grow by 25 percent this year, reaching more than $3.5 billion. Frost & Sullivan estimates that the North American car-sharing economy alone will reach $3.3 billion by 2016, with 9 million members participating. And once self-driving cars come into play, decreasing the risk inherent in different driving behaviors, the car-sharing model could explode.

Next week, we'll explore the interactions between sharing-economy advocates and insurance companies.