Tag Archives: FedEx

How Basis for Buying Decisions Is Changing

Building a business around speed and convenience is nothing new. Fast food drive-thrus, cell phones and FedEx overnight delivery services were just some of the predecessors to today’s Ubers, apps and same-day Amazon orders. But in most of these cases, purchase decisions were based upon simple factors — “I’m hungry,” or “We need delivery of a legal document,” or “Of course it would be nice to be able to make a call from my car.”

There were other services for which people understood that immediacy wasn’t an option. Many financial decisions took time. If you wanted to earn a little extra interest by using a certificate of deposit instead of savings, you would have to wait months or years for maturity. Securing life insurance was a multi-week (sometimes multi-month) underwriting process. Applying for a home loan with multiple credit and background checks took time. For the most part, people accepted these elongated processes and delays with resigned and good-natured patience. This was life. Important decisions required time, not only in the preparation, but also in the education and execution. Two hours with a life insurance agent would allow you to learn about all of the products available and understand their complexity, and it would help the agent to fit products to your needs. You valued the time spent learning, understanding and choosing based on the trusted relationship with your agent.

The convergence of generational shifts and technological advancement created a new mindset that rewrote expectations and priorities for many. Patience is no longer always considered a virtue. Insurance relationships are no longer always valued. Time-crunched people seek time-saving services. Value is seen in immediacy, uniqueness and ease.

See also: Innovation: a Need for ‘Patient Urgency’  

Enter the new generation of insurance companies redefining the insurance engagement. Lemonade, TROV, Slice, Haven Life and others who are redefining speed and value to a new generation of buyers … are placing traditional, existing insurers on notice.  From purchasing a policy in less than 10 minutes to paying a claim in less than three seconds … speed and simplicity are the new competitive levers.

Out of necessity, this has changed an insurer’s view of competition. Insurers used to know their competitors. They understood their distinctive value propositions. They debated on what were the real product differentiators. Insurers understood the reach of their agents, their geographic limitations and the customer and agent loyalty they could count on because of their excellent service.

While all of these factors still guide insurance operations, the competitive landscape has shifted to different factors critical to acquiring and retaining customers. Insurers are feebly groping for just a tiny bit of space in consumer minds —enough to plant the seed of need and just a little more to water the plant into engagement and completing a transaction — because today’s consumer isn’t going to listen well enough to grasp distinctive details. He or she is looking for an easy and quick fit.

A 2015 study of Canadian consumers estimated that the average attention span had dropped to 8 seconds from 12 seconds in 2000, driven at least in part by consumers’ constant connections through digital devices.

Need. Purchase. Done. Happy.

A 2012 Pew survey of technology experts predicted what is now coming true, “the impact of networked living on today’s young will drive them to thirst for instant gratification, settle for quick choices and lack patience….trends are leading to a future in which most people are shallow consumers of information.”

Only five years later, insurers are feeling the impact.

A key reason many of the new, innovative companies are appealing to consumers and small and medium-sized businesses (SMBs) is because they simplify and remove some of the cognitive effort required to make decisions about insurance. In his book, Thinking, Fast and Slow, the Nobel Prize-winning behavioral economist Daniel Kahneman described human decision making and thinking as a two-part system. Greatly simplified, System 1 thinking produces quick (i.e. instantaneous and sub-conscious) reflexive, automatic decisions based on instinct and past experiences. These are “gut” reactions. System 2 thinking is slow, deliberate, reason-based and requires cognitive effort.

In general, most of the decisions we make each day are through System 1, which can be both good and bad; good because it increases the speed and efficiency of decision making, and because in most instances the outcomes are acceptable. However, not all outcomes are good, and many could have been improved had System 2 thinking been engaged. The problem with System 2 is that it takes effort, and humans naturally try to minimize effort.

See also: Insurtech: Unstoppable Momentum  

So, a traditionally complex industry is intersecting with a cognitive culture that is mentally trying to simplify, reduce effort and be more intuitive. This has consequences for decisions throughout the customer’s journey with an insurance company. Good decisions about complex issues like insurance should be based on System 2 thinking. However, during the research and buying processes, the cognitive effort to do so can lead many people to choose other paths like seeking shortcuts to in-depth research and analysis or delaying a decision altogether.

In a recent report, Future Trends 2017: The Shift Gains Momentum, Majesco examined how impatience is driving a shift in behavior that is causing insurers to look at the anatomy of decisions. What behaviors are relevant to purchase? To renewals? To service? How can insurers still provide risk protection to individuals who won’t take the time to learn about complex products? We’ve drawn some of these insights out of the report for consideration here.

For one thing, insurers clearly recognize that the trends affecting them are far broader and bigger than the insurance industry. Businesses and startups across all industries are capitalizing on the lucrative opportunity afforded by meeting the ever-increasing demands for speed and simplicity made possible by technology and re-imagined business processes. Amazon Prime, Netflix, Spotify, Uber/Lyft, ApplePay/Samsung Pay, Rocket Mortgage (Quicken Loans), Twitter, Instagram and other technology-based businesses represent contemporary offerings that have simplified the customer journey.

Retailers such as Walmart, Best Buy, Staples, Amazon and even eBay are testing same-day delivery for items ordered online. Simplifying a customer’s entire journey with a company by making it “easy to do business with” is more critical than ever for insurers.

What is the good news in the world of impatience? Insurers are quickly finding ways to counter the disparity between the need for speed and the need for good decisions. They are also using a bit of psychology to positively influence decisions, and they are buying back some brain space with techniques that both inform and engage.

In Part 2 of this series, we will look at these techniques as well as product adaptation, framework preparation and planning for transformation that will meet the demand for quick decisions. For more in-depth information on behavioral insurance impact, download the Future Trends 2017 report today.

10 Insurance Questions for 2017

Love it or hate it, 2016 was a year that brought many surprises. And 2017 is looking like another year of unexpected outcomes. The saying goes, “May you live in interesting times.” And we are definitely living in interesting times, including in the insurance industry.

Here are 10 insurance questions for 2017:

1. Will this be the year that the U.S. insurance industry makes a definitive move toward level commissions or fee-based products across all product lines?

Most other professional service providers are paid on an hourly or fee basis, including accountants, attorneys, physicians, trust officers and the majority of financial planners. The Department of Labor fiduciary rule is driving some insurance companies to offer fee-based annuities for retirement plans rather than traditional commission-based annuities. See my take on this: The Fiduciary Rule: A Call To Arms for the Insurance Bill of Rights: Aligning the Insurance Industry With Consumers. The U.K. already has a commission ban, yet life insurance sales are now trending up. While, there are differences in the U.S. and U.K. markets, the core principles are the same. To learn more, visit the Nerd’s Eye View Blog for Bob Veres’ in-depth look. Commissions are not necessarily the bottom-line issue; it’s the premiums that really make the difference.

2. Will the Affordable Care Act stay in effect? 

While no one knows for sure, it is unlikely that the ACA will be completely repealed any time soon. President-elect Trump, along with leaders in Congress, have vowed to repeal and replace, but doing so will be challenging given the lack of votes in the Senate. And while there are significant issues with the ACA, consumers do benefit. Also, healthcare organizations and insurance companies having spent millions of dollars to adjust to it. What is likely is that changes will occur on a gradual basis. The bottom line is that one of the most important benefits to U.S. citizens is the ability to purchase health insurance if you have any existing (or past) health issues. Prior to the ACA, it was challenging to get an individual health insurance policy, which created a bigger issue for individuals and for our overall society. Yes, premiums are increasing, and there are fewer insurers participating. At the same time, it is estimated that there are more than 20 million people with insurance under the ACA. Change will happen, just gradually. If the ACA is replaced, there remains the questions of how to fund it, if the current mandates (taxes and penalties) are stripped out. The funding is one of the core issues and does need to be revised. Insurance companies have also left the federal and state exchanges in a number of states, and they will need to be given incentives to return to the marketplaces.

See also: Top 10 Insurtech Trends for 2017  

3. What will happen with long-term care insurance (LTCI)?

The need for long-term care insurance is not going away; people are living longer, and healthcare costs are rising. Medicaid coverage is minimal and does not apply to most long-term-care expenses. Older LTCI policies have experienced significant premium increases for many reasons, but since the passage of the National Association of Insurance Commissioners’ Rate Stabilization Model Act, there have been fewer increases on newer policies (Read more: “What’s ahead for long term care insurance” ). Currently, hybrid long-term-care/life insurance policies are experiencing growth, but these complex policies are not a solution, as they are a step away from providing a direct protection against the specific risk being insured, which means they are more expensive than a stand-alone LTC policy. A new issue coming up is that some states have “filial responsibility” laws that obligate adult children to financially support their parents and are starting to be used by some nursing homes.  Read about it here.

4. Will insurance agents go extinct?

No, insurance agents will not be going away. However, the way that insurance agents currently do business and have historically done business will be going away. With greater access to information and technology, insurance agents will become true advisers to their clients rather than simply transacting product sales. Professional insurance agents provide value to consumers when they help them understand how insurance policies work and when they assist consumers in making wise choices. The insurance agents who survive will be the ones who recognize that they need to align their interests with those of consumers and work in their best interests by recommending insurance coverage that consistently meets the needs of their clients. Insurance agents will need to follow the concepts outlined in The Insurance Bill of Rights. Mark Twain said, “The reports of my death have been greatly exaggerated,” and this certainly applies to insurance agents.

5. Will consumers finally discover the value of disability insurance? 

Disability insurance is the most overlooked financial tool. Disability insurance is a necessity for anyone who depends on their income. If we are discussing a mandatory insurance coverage, disability insurance should be at the top of the list. Three in 10 workers entering the workforce today will become disabled for some period before they retire (Social Security Administration, Fact Sheet, January 31, 2017). This point was brought home by the fact that Colin Kaepernick did not play this year for the San Francisco 49ers until they purchased a disability insurance policy for him. Read more here.

6. Has the annuity marketplace hit its turning point? 

The current annuity marketplace is filled with complex annuity options that are increasingly challenging for an insurance agent to understand, let alone being understandable for consumers, especially seniors, who are heavily marketed to. The annuity industry continues to face significant market conduct issues in terms of suitability and disclosures (Read about the investigation by the New York Department of Financial Services). Annuity companies that think outside the box and provide low-cost, easy-to-understand solutions will gain popularity. A number of leaders in the financial planning area are already discussing the value of single-premium immediate annuities in investment portfolios to help offset longevity risk (living too long). This will only happen with low-cost annuities and where agents can really provide value by recognizing and solving challenges that can only be addressed with annuities that serve the consumer by getting back to the core function of annuities.

7. Have we reached the tipping point for when the impact of the prolonged low-interest-rate environment will fully emerge on interest-sensitive life insurance policies? 

The majority of universal life policies issued are facing the hidden danger of terminating long before they are expected to. This is due to lower-than-projected credited interest rates, which has led to reduced cash values. If a life insurance policy reaches a cash value of zero, it will terminate unless it has a no-lapse guarantee. The only way to keep the policies in force is to increase the premium, however, life insurance companies, for the most part, are not advising policy owners that they need to increase the premium and specifying the amount by which the premium needs to be increased. This situation has been exacerbated by the fact that a number of life insurance companies have had to increase their mortality costs (cost of insurance charges) to maintain profitability. Continuing to ignore this issue is going to have significant long-term ramifications for the stability and trust in life insurance companies and life insurance agents. This is affecting all types of life insurance that are not guaranteed products, just not as directly. Read more: Will Your Life Insurance Terminate Before You Do?

See also: 10 Predictions for Insurtech in 2017  

8. Is there truly an insurtech company that can add core value to the insurance process?

The insurance industry needs evolution, and not revolution. The majority of insurtech companies are really bringing us more of the same; they are really just “dressed up” insurance brokerages and insurance insurance companies. And while some do make use of technological breakthroughs, they are not making insurance breakthroughs, which is an important distinction. The real breakthroughs will come from when consumers can more easily understand insurance products and pricing and companies can use data to provide truly customized insurance product pricing, streamline underwriting, simplify products and riders and provide insurance products that people need, thereby eliminating those that don’t have a useful purpose.

9. Is it time for insurance policies to finally be used primarily for insurance purposes?

The insurance industry will recognize that it must get back to its core function, which is protecting against potential risks. When this happens, it will lead to better-optimized insurance products for consumers and longer-term business for insurance companies. This will especially be true in the areas of life insurance and annuities when the trend becomes using insurance to address non-insurance issues. Insurance is just insurance.

10. Will the insurance industry discover excellent customer service?

Quality policy owner service is not something that the insurance industry as a whole is known for. Companies that provide top-notch customer experiences thrive, are well-known for doing so and can be easily named (think: Nordstrom, Disney and Apple). Other companies are known for poor customer service, while most remain in the middle. FedEx, which used to be known for top service, now delivers packages at any time and leaves them all over the place. The point is that a quality policy owner experience will revolutionize the insurance process. If the insurance industry can learn to “delight” consumers at every step along the way from the policy selection process, policy application and underwriting process, policy monitoring and claims service, then the insurance industry will really move forward.

The Bottom Line

Greater insurance literacy will benefit consumers and members of the insurance industry. Following the guidelines of The Insurance Bill of Rights is what will move the insurance industry forward. Ask your agent and insurance company if they’ve taken The Insurance Bill of Rights Pledge and look for the Insurance Bill of Rights Seal on their website. If they haven’t taken it, ask them why not or what they have to hide about fairness and disclosure — and join The Insurance Bill of Rights Movement by signing the petition to support The Insurance Bill of Rights (click here).

If you have any feedback or your own questions for 2017, please let me know. Thanks for reading.

Dark Web and Other Scary Cyber Trends

We have all heard the continued drum beat regarding hacking. Anthem, Sony, Target, Home Depot, Experian and various government and military branches have all been hacked and have received their fair share of negative press. In each case, people were harmed, leaders were fired, brands were damaged and no one was really surprised.

I am not a singularly focused cybersecurity expert, but I have been up to my neck in tech for 30 years and have a knack for seeing emerging patterns and macro trends and stitching those together to synthesize consequences and outcomes. In the case of the Dark Web, none of that is good news; The emerging patterns should worry us all. As English historian (1608-1661) Thomas Fuller wrote, “Security is the mother of danger and the grandmother of destruction.”

See also: Best Practices in Cyber Security

Below is my list of the “Top 10 Scary Macro Cyberthreat Trends” –and this is still early days for them.

1. The Dark Web Pareto 

Over the last decade, the hacker population has gone from 80% aficionados/hacktivists/deep-end-of-the-pool techies and 20% professional criminals to 80% professional criminals and 20% “other.” To be clear, by “professional criminal” I mean organized criminals who are there for the money, not just to someone who broke the law.

2. “Lego-ization” of the Dark Web

Over the last few years, technology in the Dark Web has been changed from intricate, end-to-end hacks to a place where one merely assembles “legos” that are commercially available (albeit inside an anonymized criminal environment.) People don’t just buy tool kits with instructions but also the ability to buy “lego-ized” services like illicit call center agent time for more complex criminal activities such as getting access to someone’s bank account. Parts of the Dark Web look like IKEA without the assembly difficulty or the inevitable leftover parts.

3. The Dark Web embraces the capital-lite approach

Of course, the Dark Web has embraced the cloud-computing model for the reasons we see in the enterprise world. What this means to the criminal hacker or, more likely, hacker organization, is that they can now go asset-free and rent the assets they need when they need them.

For example, there are services for running a few hundred million password permutations in less than an hour for a few hundred dollars. Hackers no longer need to infect a massive amount of computers to fire up a denial-of-service hack; they can simply rent time on a botnet, a massive amount of “hijacked” computers up for sale in the Dark Web. Most companies still do not have a botwall to deflect bots.

Gameover ZeuS is a massive example of a botnet with one variant able to generate 10,000 domains a day with more than three million zombie computers — just in the U.S. Botnets are sometimes referred to as “zombie armies” (surely there’s a TV series in there somewhere.) The Bredolab botnet may have had as many as 30 million zombie computers.

See also: Demystifying “The Dark Web”

4. Clandestine versus brazen 

The bragging rights for revealing a hacking “accomplishment” was once a hallmark of this space. Over the past decade or so, that factor has greatly diminished. The criminal enterprise would like nothing more than to go unnoticed. The recent massive Experian hack only came to light after the Secret Service let Experian know some of its stuff had been found for sale in the Dark Web. Focusing on avoiding detection by adopting smarter methods, targets, distribution models and revenue capture is better business and is in line with a longer, sustainable view of profit. None of the criminal organizations have boards of directors that pressure them to hit the quarterly sales and operating income figures. A hack is not a moment in time; if a hacker can go undetected, he or she can milk the hack for years. This is worrisome.

5. The total available market has grown and is target-rich 

The target space for crime connected to an IP node has grown tremendously, and so has the value of the content. The massive increase in mobile IP addresses, the online transactions we do and IP-related things like stored value cards or mileage points makes a rich target for crime. It is 100x bigger than what it was just 10 to 15 years ago.

The target space’s growth is accelerating. After banking regulations on the minimum size of banks were relaxed in 1900, 2,000 banks were added in two years along with growth in the relatively new credit union sector. This increase in “target space” spawned bank robbers. The target space for Dark Web crime loves the increase in the target area and doesn’t mind that the “banks” are smaller. The number of people using the Web and the average amount of time spent on the Web continues to increase. I think with the advent of things like the Internet of Things, 5G, Li-Fi and a quantum leap in cloud computing capacity per unit cost, this increase will accelerate.

6. Small many versus big few 

Over the past decade, the trend in conjunction with the above items moved toward smaller “heists” but a lot more of them. Someone in Venezuela took $2 a month off my credit card for 18 months before it stopped. How many people would miss a dollar or two off a stored value card/account that has an auto-refill function like my Skype account does?

What sort of statistical controls would you put on your revenue flows (as a business) to even recognize that leakage? Of course, there are still big hacks going on, but a lot of those are just the front end of a B2B transaction that then sells off that big pool of hacked data to buyers in the criminal bazaar. Small, often and dispersed is harder to catch and more clandestine by nature.

7. Automation of the Dark Web

Timing is everything. As the Dark Web evolved into a scale-based, organized criminal environment, it leveraged modern automation from provisioning to tool sets to communications and even to billing.

Blackshades creepware is a great example of automation extending into the consumer product end. Available for $50, it has a point-and-click interface and has internalized all of the complexity and has automated hacking even for actors with very low-level tech skills. It allows the bad actor to browse files, steal data/passwords and use the camera (often relating to extortion). Blackshades infected more than 500,000 computers in more than 100 nations. A lot of the people who bought this did not have the skills to do any hacking without this kind of automation.

8. Tech getting better, faster, cheaper while talent improves

Late last year, TalkTalk, an ISP quad-play provider in the U.K., got hacked and held for ransom by four teenagers. The company estimates $90 million of cost tied to this hack, and no one really knows what the cost of the brand damage has been. There’s also a third of the company’s market cap gone, and it lost 95,000 customers. In all fairness, TalkTalk’s security was poor. The point here is that the technology in the Dark Web is getting faster, better and cheaper. At the same time, the average talent level is rising, which may not be the case in the non-criminal tech world.

There are three factors at play:

  1. Communities of collaboration and learning are becoming commonplace. Blackshades is a great example of a malicious tool with a super-low point of entry (price and tech skills) backed up by great online help and a community site.
  2. The likes of the Metropolitan Police Cyber Unit (London), the FBI, Interpol, etc. are all very effective and are continually improving organizations that stop crime and lock up cyber criminals. In some ways, this is a culling of the herd that also serves to create a positive Darwinian push on the average talent in the Dark Web.
  3. The giant upside financial opportunity to using tech skills for nefarious purposes creates a big gravitational pull that is only enhanced by recent economic and national turmoil, especially in places like Eastern Europe, Russia and Ukraine. In addition to that, state-sponsored or affiliated hackers with military-like rigor in their training can often make money moonlighting in the criminal world.

The combination of forces raising the talent level and the continued improvement of technology make for a bad combo. The Dark Web is also embracing open sourcing. Peer-to-peer bitcoin-based plays may become the next dark commerce platform.

9. The Dark Web itself

The Dark Web has evolved over the past decade or so from a foggy, barely penetrable space to a labyrinth of loosely connected actors and now to a massive, modernized bazaar thriving with commercial activity with a huge neon sign on the front door saying “Open for Business.” It is not just a bazaar, it is a huge B2B marketplace where the best criminals can resell their wares whole or in “lego-ized” pieces. Some of these criminals even offer testimonials and performance guarantees!

The Dark Web has moved from what economists call “perfect competition” to a more imperfect model trending toward oligopoly. In simpler terms, it is not a sea of malevolent individuals but, rather, the domain of organized businesses that happen to be largely illegal. These are organizations of scale that must be run like a business. This new structure will evolve, adapt and grow so much faster than the prior structure because these organizations have mission-focus and cash-flow pressures. Of course, the market forces common in a bazaar will winnow out low-value and defective products quickly, simply because word travels fast and customers vote with their wallets. 

10. The truly ugly “What’s next?” section

Like many thriving businesses, there is a tendency to move into adjacencies and nearby markets. This has already happened.

There is a lot of money in fiddling with clickstreams and online advertising flows. Bots account for about 50% of the traffic on the Internet; of those, about 60% are bad bots.

There is money to be made in transportation. One can buy fake waybills on the Dark Web to ship a crate to, say, Kiev at a fraction of the price FedEx or UPS would charge, even though the package will travel through FedEx or UPS.

Here are four emerging and even more worrisome areas that could be leveraged (in a bad way) by sophisticated, tech-savvy commercial criminal enterprises that are alive and thriving today in the Dark Web.

  • Internet of Things – It is just the beginning for the IoT. If you click here, you can read a paper on what may drive the amazing growth and where the potential is. The available talent who know how to secure devices, sensors and tags from hacks and stop those hacks from jumping five hops up a network are few and far between, and they don’t normally work in the consumer and industrial spaces that make stuff and that have decided to make an IP-enabled model. Few boards in the Fortune 500 can have an intelligent conversation about cybersecurity at any level of detail that matters. In short, over the next few years, IoT may be a giant hunting ground. For instance, what if a hacker goes through the air conditioning control system to point-of-sale devices and steals credit card info? That is a target with a big bull’s eye on it. (That is what happened to Target.)
  • Robotics – This is a little further out, and the criminal cash flow is a little harder to predict, but IP-connected robots is a space that will grow exponentially over the next decade and be at key points in manufacturing, military and medical process flows. What is the ransom for holding a bottling plant hostage? The Samsung SGR -1 (no, not a new phone) is a thermal imaging, video-sensing robot with a highly accurate laser targeting gun that can kill someone from 3,000 yards out. The Oerlikon GDF005 is a less-sophisticated antiaircraft “gunbot” that is, in part, designed to be turned on and left to shoot down drones. These things are both hackable. 
  • Biochem – What if some of the above Dark Web trends extend into this area, renting assets and expertise, point-and-click front-end designs? The bad news is that this seems to have started. 
  • The over-the-horizon worries – Nanotech, Li-Fi, AI, synthetic biology, brain computer interface (BCI) and genomics are all areas that, at some point in their evolution, will draw a critical mass of criminal Dark Web interest. The advances in these areas are at an astounding pace. They are parts of the near future, not the distant future. If you have not looked at CRISPR, google it. Things like CRISPR, coupled with progressively better economics, are going to supercharge this space. Li-Fi, coupled with 5G and the IoT (including accelerated growth in soft sensors), will create a large target space. The Open BCI maker community is growing quickly and holds enormous promise. Take a look at the Open BCI online shop and see what you could put together for $2,000 or  $10,000. The Ultracortex Mark IV is mind-blowing (not literally) and only $299.

All of this is going to get worse before it gets better. This is clearly not a fair fight. This is a target-rich environment that is growing faster than almost anyone anticipated. The bad actors are progressively getting better organized, smarter and better built for “success.” Interpol, the FBI and other law enforcement agencies do great work, but a lot of it is after-the-fact.

Enterprises need new approaches to network-centric compartmentalized security. New thinking about upstream behavioral preventative design is needed for robustly secure IoT plays.

National organizations in law enforcement and intelligence need to think through fighting a borderless, adaptive, well-funded, loosely coupled, highly motivated force like those under the Dark Web umbrella. Those national organizations probably need to play as much offense as defense. Multiple siloed police and intelligence units that are bounded geographically, organizationally, financially and culturally probably will start out with a disadvantage.

This article was originally published on SandHill.com. The story can be found here.

Your Next Director Should Be a Geek

Imagine that you were a major investor in a leading company, and its board of directors had no members with independent, world-class financial expertise. Who would look after your interests? You could probably coach the directors to ask good questions, but they would lack the competence to judge the answers. The board would not be able to engage management in robust conversations about the complexities of capital structure, mergers and acquisitions, financial accounting, reporting, regulatory compliance or risk management. Most investors and regulators would deem such a board unfit to carry out its fiduciary guidance and governance responsibilities.

Yet that’s precisely where many companies are when it comes to information technology. Digitally driven change is becoming as critical an issue to most companies as finance. Companies are being called on to reimagine and reconstruct every aspect of their business; customers, suppliers and markets expect no less. Consider the rapidly expanding use of mobile phones in retail and banking. Or the changes foreseen in the transportation industry due to car-hailing algorithms and driverless vehicles. Already, one MIT study has found that digitally adept companies are, on average, as much as 26% more profitable than their competitors. And that advantage is only likely to increase.

The boards of many large companies are ill-equipped for these shifts. That was the conclusion of our 2015 study of more than 1,000 nonexecutive and executive directors at 112 of the largest publicly traded companies in the U.S. and Europe. By analyzing company filings and public information, we found that all too many boards lacked the expertise needed to understand how technology informs strategy and affects execution. In Europe, for example, 95% of the companies we assessed, excluding technology and telecommunications companies, still had no non-executive directors with deep technology fluency. In the U.S., almost half of the surveyed companies had no technology expertise on their boards. These included major financial-services, insurance, industrial and consumer products companies. Yet each of those industries is grappling with complex strategic questions that hinge on technology.

See Also: How Leadership Will Look in 20 Years

Even boards with world-class technology expertise can have blind spots in areas of strategic importance; these include analytics, cybersecurity and digital fabrication. And even experts who keep up with particular technologies may miss the general effects of rapid technologically driven change on core products, business models and customer preferences.

Many board members are aware of these deficiencies. They know that their companies will either embrace technological change and claim the markets of the future or be put out of business. In 2015, a PwC global survey of large-company directors found that 85% of the respondents were dissatisfied with the way their companies were “anticipating the competitive advantages enabled by technology.” Almost as many, 79%, said their boards did not sufficiently understand technology.

The pervasiveness of the problem is troubling for anyone who cares about these companies — but it also represents an enormous opportunity. At the board level, there is a need for knowledgeable, incisive “geeks”: independent directors with experience and perspective in putting technology to use. In the past, many boards have compensated by relying on management or external consultants for strategic advice. But the stakes are now too high to take that approach.

Boards can no longer duck the responsibility for the company’s digital transformation. They must take real ownership by ensuring that they are equipped to fully understand this part of the board agenda. Otherwise, how can they adequately oversee their company’s strategy, investments and expense base? How can they guide profitability, manage risk, assess management performance and ensure proper talent supply? Below are three critical steps you can take to better prepare your company for these challenges.

1. Hold out for sufficiently broad and deep expertise. Although company leaders agree on the need to attract technology-fluent directors, they often approach the undertaking as an exercise in diversity. They “check the box” by bringing in one person to stand for the full technological field, rather than seeking multiple directors with relevant experience and insight.

To assess the severity of this deficiency in the companies we studied, we analyzed the resumes of their nonexecutive directors on four distinct aspects of technology: pure-play disruptive digital business, enterprise-level IT, cybersecurity and the digital transformation of Fortune 500–sized enterprises. Each is critical to boards’ oversight responsibilities, and fluency in each requires a distinct body of knowledge and experience. Few experts in enterprise-level value-chain IT could offer expert guidance on building disruptive digital business, and vice versa. We found that more than 90% of the companies, including technology and telecommunications firms, lacked expertise in one or more of these critical technology areas. Our research revealed only two companies that addressed all areas: Google and Wells Fargo.

To address the gap, you must open multiple board seats for people with technological experience. Just as having only one woman on a board has proven to be insufficient, having just one IT-savvy member is problematic. To fill these seats, you may have to reach beyond the traditional search targets of former CEOs and CFOs. Tap into recent CIOs, CTOs and other C-level leaders at successful information-intensive companies; retired military officers with large information-technology commands; and senior consulting and private equity partners with deep cross-industry expertise in enterprise technology transformations. Resist the urge to rely solely on Silicon Valley experience. Start-up experience is valuable, but addresses just a small part of the large enterprise technology challenge. Likewise, the “move fast and break things” attitude in Silicon Valley often does not translate well to other industries.

When recruiting these board members, be wary of candidates without fresh experience; in fast-moving fields such as cybersecurity or disruptive digital technology, people who are no longer active don’t always keep up with the latest trends. If executives in the business sector are scarce, look elsewhere; other sectors may be surprisingly relevant. In financial services, for example, understanding sophisticated process control is increasingly important. The best prospective board member may come from the logistics industry — from, say, FedEx or UPS.

2. Support robust discussions of technology with the right kinds of practices and management structures. There are two possible mechanisms for accomplishing suitably robust discussions. The first is to establish a formal technology-focused subcommittee of the full board, on par with other oversight functions such as audit or compensation. This can be helpful in raising critical issues and promoting deep discussion of complex topics. It also creates a mechanism for engaging external advisers.

Alternatively, set up a technology advisory committee that meets regularly with top management and periodically reports to the board. AT&T does this. It may be easier, with such a committee, to attract best-in-class expertise, given that the time commitment is low and there are no full fiduciary responsibilities. Typically, advisory committees can also rotate members more frequently than a board can. It must be remembered, however, that an advisory committee reports to management, not the board. This will color its advice.

Whatever the structure, it is important for this group to address topics that go beyond technology strategy and IT governance. The most important priority may be enterprise strategy and the ways in which technology makes new value propositions possible. FedEx, which is as much a technology company as a transportation icon, has used such a board to great effect for many years.

3. Set the right context. Alan Kay, one of the foremost pioneers in personal computer conception and design, once said, “Point of view is worth 80 IQ points.” The context with which your board of directors views technology is a critical element for enterprise success. They must collectively understand the 10 to 15 drivers of technology that have taken quantum leaps in the past decade — for example, big data and analytics, cloud computing, mobile technology, artificial intelligence, the Internet of Things and autonomous transportation — and the potential implications each has for the company.

They must also have a clear view of their own company’s IT landscape: their existing hardware and software, including estimates of redundancy, age, robustness, any risk of obsolescence and costs. For example, how many marketing systems, customer databases and human resource systems does the company have? How interoperable are those systems? The need to ask these types of questions about a factory or back-office footprint would be obvious, but boards have generally neglected such inquiries regarding technology. The board must also understand risks related to technology, the defenses currently in play and any weaknesses in those defenses. Most important, the board must understand how the company’s IT systems relate to the company’s overall strategy, and what capabilities are needed to support it.

It falls to the board to ensure that the company has a multiyear plan to address technology needs while reducing costs and risk. Boards need not grant a license to spend. On the contrary, the hallmark of computers and networks is that they continually get faster, better and cheaper. These benefits accrue only to those with modern gear, however, so frequent upgrades are essential.

Finally, the board must incorporate its expanded technology context into larger deliberations. Talent recruiting and leadership development should be designed to fill gaps in technological fields. The criticality of IT should inform the review of proposed mergers and acquisitions. A close link to the audit committee is important because technology affects regulatory compliance and ethical issues. And the relationship to full board strategy discussions is critical.

Of course, placing someone with world-class technology expertise on a board does not guarantee success. Many technically proficient companies have lost to upstarts with a better product or service. But without this expertise, boards cannot play their most important role: intervening with substantive conversations about strategic decisions early enough to make a difference. And without these focused conversations about technological investments and decisions, boards cannot fulfill their fiduciary responsibilities.

Today, every board of directors has a once-in-a-generation chance to leapfrog the competition through technology competency. The opportunity is great because the task is difficult, and there is no large pool of talent waiting to be recruited. Those companies that meet this challenge successfully will capture the markets of the future.

A version of this article appeared in the Summer 2016 issue of strategy+business.

How to Captivate Customers (Part 2)

ITL Editor-in-Chief Paul Carroll recently hosted a webinar on “Captivating Customers With All-Channel Experiences,” featuring experts from Capgemini and Salesforce.com and the former chief customer experience officer at AIG. To view or listen to the webinar, click here. For the slides, click here.

The insurance industry is getting “Amazoned.”

The term dates back to the late 1990s and early 2000s, as the online retailer’s friendly interface, including the ability to buy with one click, made consumers wonder why their experiences with other companies were so much more cumbersome. Retailers were the first to suffer by comparison, but customers have become increasingly demanding of companies in all industries.

Now, the insurance industry faces similar comparisons with disruptors outside of the insurance industry. Consider the questions today’s policyholders are raising:

  • “Why can’t I know the status of my claim the way Fedex tracks packages in real time?”
  • “Why can’t I get help interactively in the same way I collaborate on Facebook?”
  • “Why can’t I search and compare products like the way I answer questions on Google?”
  • “Why can’t my experience be as speedy and personalized as hailing a limo on Uber?”

Insurance companies can no longer just incrementally do better than they have in the past and hope to please customers, let alone captivate customers. Simply outdoing immediate competitors is not enough. Insurers now must find ways to satisfy – even delight – customers who have been conditioned for years to demand stellar service.

Customers now insist that every person and every computer system they deal with have full knowledge of them and of all previous interactions regardless of channel, whether it be an employee, agent, self-service portal, mobile app or contact center. Customers want to initiate a request for a quote and pick the request up at any time later, basically in mid-sentence, after doing some online research, conferring with friends and family or just grabbing a cup of coffee.

The words to keep in mind in dealing with today’s customers are:

–Fluid and intuitive (seamlessly engage and make the transition from channel to channel or any device, know what the customer may be interested in or needs before he gets there)

–Effortless (once and done; i.e., entering information once and never again)

–Efficient (especially when processing a claim)

–Personalized (know who I am when I call in and what I’ve done. I called yesterday, so acknowledge my journey in your world and help advise me)

The bar will keep being raised, as Amazon and others keep showing what’s possible, but delivering on those four terms will do an awful lot to delight customers for the foreseeable future.

This is the second in a series of four articles adapted from the Capgemini white paper “Cloud-Enabled Transformation in Insurance: Accelerating the Ability to Deliver Exceptional Customer Experiences.” The first article is here. For the full white paper, click here.