Tag Archives: federal regulation

Time to Revisit State-Based Regulation?

The states do not have a constitutional “right” to oversee insurance. Clearly, insurance and reinsurance is interstate commerce, which gives federal government the oversight. There are no states rights issues involved.

The McCarran–Ferguson Act, 15 U.S.C. §§ 1011-1015, which was passed by Congress in 1945, does not regulate insurance, nor does it mandate the state regulation of insurance. Section 2(b) of the act does specify that the business of insurance is exempt from the antitrust laws only if it is regulated by the states. It provides that “Acts of Congress” that do not expressly regulate the “business of insurance” will not preempt state laws or regulations that regulate the “business of insurance.”

What else was going on in 1945? Oh, yeah, that World War II thing. Perhaps congress then did not want more responsibility.

It is time that this war-generated act is revisited.

“Perfunctory” would be a kind word for how some of the states actually oversee the insurance process. I have personally experienced insurance departments that are totally unaware of the laws by which they are supposed to be regulating insurance. Regulators either do not know the law or do not care about enforcing it. While I have not witnessed the federal government’s efficiency, to continue the regulatory status quo is to argue that the demonstrated 50-plus (states and territories) individual messes are better than one big mess, while having to accept as a foregone conclusion that a federal system would be a mess.

The states have clearly proven to be lacking in both integrity and self-restraint. The 2015 State Integrity Investigation shows the reality of the situation. Only three states score higher than D-plus; 11 states flunked. The State Integrity Investigation is an in-depth collaboration designed to assess transparency, accountability, ethics and oversight in state government, spotlight the states that are doing things right and expose practices that undermine trust in state capitals. The project is not a measure of corruption, but of state governments’ overall accountability and transparency. The investigation looks at both the laws in place and the “in practice” implementation of those laws to assess the systems that are meant to prevent corruption and expose it when it does occur. State foxes are guarding the henhouse.

While the state insurance regulatory heads are adamant about keeping their perfunctory regulation of insurance based on the misnomer of “states’ rights,” they are by design or defect giving away that power to the quasi-private nongovernmental National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC) or the private rating agencies, which may be thought of as shadow regulators.

In the name of commonality of law among the states, the NAIC produces model legislation, which the states are pressured to accept, lest they lose their cherished accreditation status by the NAIC.

See also: How to Bulletproof Regulatory Risk  

The tactic used by the NAIC is not unlike the federal speed limit of 55 MPH in the ’70s and ’80s. Where does the federal government have the right to tell any state what its speed limit should be? It doesn’t. But the Transportation Department said, Do this, or we won’t give you any highway funds.

So how does this NAIC model legislation thing work? Here is an example.

In the NAIC’s Deceptive Trade Practices Act (DTPA) or (Unfair Trade Practices Act), the NAIC said that if a company does something (bad) with regularity, that may be considered a “trade practice.” Originally, this was NOT anything but additional ammunition for the state insurance regulator, but when Texas passed this model, it did so with two big changes:

  1. A one-time act of bad by the insurance company could be considered a trade practice.
  2. There was a private right of action against the insurance company for violating the DTPA — the right didn’t just belong to the insurance regulator.

Oklahoma passed the act close to the way the NAIC wrote it, yet according to the NAIC both states have passed the model. But sameness in name does not mean sameness in fact.

Fighting Back:

Not everyone sees this drift toward private oversight as a good thing for the insurance consumer. The National Conference of Insurance Legislators (NCOIL) — those elected guys who actually pass the insurance legislation — are trying to do something about the drift.

At its fall meeting in November 2015, NCOIL urged each state legislature, the departments of insurance and insurance commissioners to foster competition in insurer rating.

No single insurer rating agency should be allowed to position itself to supersede state regulation. The message is clear; the state is in charge of insurance regulation, not some private rating agency setting up rules as to what an insurance company must do to get a certain grade.

Major intermediaries appear to favor state oversight, which is logical because reinsurance intermediaries are basically unregulated by the various states, and they are not so likely to remain unregulated if the federal government assumes its rightful place in insurance regulation.

Thomas B. Considine, now NCOIL’s chief executive but previously commissioner of the New Jersey Department of Banking and Insurance, used NCOIL’s spring meeting in New Orleans as the venue to raise public concerns about states becoming subject to the authority of the NAIC, a private trade association composed of the nation’s insurance regulators. The circumstance under which lawmaking authority may be delegated to private organizations is narrow. For that reason, delegation of states’ authority to a private organization (such as the NAIC) needs to be stopped.

The situation makes a good argument for the Treasury Department’s Federal Insurance Office, an agency whose existence has been questioned by the NAIC, as well as some other elements of the industry.

State oversight is not a good argument against federal oversight, especially when the state regulator is doing what it can to cede its power to the private industry and away from itself.

See also: Investment Oversight: Look Beyond Scores!  

Bigger issue

This is not just a turf war; it goes to the very core of the McCarran Ferguson Act itself. An analysis of the act will determine the scope of the antitrust exemptions. History paints a narrow picture. Issues are not centered on whether Congress has the power to regulate the business of insurance but rather whether the commerce clause precludes state regulation altogether. That changes the argument and the analysis.

This is also not a case of which oversight is more appropriate, federal or state, but whether the state should be allowed to continue its oversight in order for various federal exemptions to apply to the entities in the business of insurance. That is, the Sherman, Clayton, and Federal Trade Commission (antitrust laws) apply to insurance only “to the extent that such business is not regulated by state law.” If states regulate, then exemptions apply; if the states do not regulate, the exemptions do not apply. This is a very clear indication that any dismissive perfunctory attitude of some state regulators invites the application of federal law against those in the business of insurance.


  1. Is the activity part of the business of insurance? (Unfortunately, the act does not define the business of insurance, and the legislative history here is not clear.)
  2. If it is, then the analysis goes to the extent to which the activity is regulated by the state. § 2 (b) of the McCarran -Ferguson Act addresses the state regulation activity. (Case law shows that any uncertainty regarding the applicability of the exemption should be resolved against a grant of antitrust immunity.) Unfortunately, the U.S. Supreme Court has not defined what extent is necessary; however, lower courts hold that a statutory framework that is a mere pretense is insufficient. Perfunctory regulation won’t suffice. The legislative history indicates that Congress intended the exemption only when effective state law exists.
  3. If the activity is not regulated effectively by the state, or if the activity constitutes a form of boycott, coercion or intimidation, the activity will be subject to the scrutiny of the antitrust laws.

The wholesale delegation of authority by the various states to the NAIC or deferring to select private rating agencies brings with it the very real possibility of a successful challenge to the state’s current insurance regulatory status quo.

The FIO Report on Insurance Regulation

The December 2013 issuance of the Federal Insurance Office (FIO) report, How to Modernize and Improve the System of Insurance Regulation in the United States, may in hindsight be regarded as more momentous an occasion for the industry and its regulation than the muted initial reaction might suggest. History’s verdict most likely will depend on the effectiveness of the follow-up to the report by both the executive and legislative branches, but current trends in financial services regulation may serve to increase the importance and influence over time of the FIO even in the face of inaction in Washington.

Insurance regulation has traditionally been the near-exclusive province of the states, a right jealously guarded by the states and secured by Congress in 1945 after the Supreme Court ruled insurance could be regulated by the federal government under the Commerce Clause of the Constitution.

Any fear that the FIO report would call for an end to state regulation proved unfounded, but industry members might be well-advised to prepare for the eventualities that may result as the FIO uses both the soft power of the bully pulpit and the harder power of the federal government to achieve its aims. As the designated U.S. insurance representative in international forums that more and more mold financial services regulation, and as an arbiter of standards that could be imposed on the states, the FIO and this report should not be ignored.

Having met with the FIO’s leadership team, we believe there are concerns that uniformity at the state level cannot be achieved without federal involvement. We further believe the FIO plans to work to translate its potential into an actual impact in the near future, making a clear-eyed understanding of the report and what it may herald for insurers a prudent and necessary step in regulatory risk management.

The concerns

The biggest surprise about the FIO report may well have been that there were no surprises. There were no strident calls for a wholesale revamp of the regulatory system, and praise for the state regulatory system was liberally mingled among the criticisms.

The lack of any real blockbusters in the details of the FIO report may seem to lend implicit support to those who foresee a continuation of the status quo in insurance regulation. But, taken as a whole, this report and the regulatory atmosphere in which it has been released should be considered a subtle warning of changes that may yet come.

The report may quietly help to usher in an acceleration of the current evolution of insurance regulation. The result could be a regulatory climate that offers more consistency and clarity for insurers and reduces the cost of regulation. The result could also be a regulatory climate that offers more stringent regulatory requirements and increases both the cost of compliance and capital requirements. Most likely, the result could be a hybrid of both.

Either way, preparing to influence and cope with any possible changes portended in the report would be preferable to ignoring the portents.

Part of the disconnect between the short-term reception and the long-term impact of this report may be because of the implicit FIO recognition in the report of the lack of political will needed to enforce any real changes in current U.S. insurance regulation, most especially any that would require increased expenditures or personnel at the federal level. In our current economic and political environment, plugging gaps in state regulation by using measures that would require federal dollars may quite reasonably be construed to be off the table.

But the difference between identified problems and feasible solutions may offer an opportunity. States, industry and other stakeholders could act together to bring needed reform to the insurance regulatory system in a way that adds uniform national standards to regulation, reduces the possibility of regulatory arbitrage and maintains the national system of state-based regulation, all while recognizing the industry’s strengths and needs and not burdening the industry with unnecessary, onerous regulation.

There is much to praise in the current state regulatory system. A generally complimentary federal report on the insurance industry and the fiscal crisis of the past decade noted, “The effects of the financial crisis on insurers and policyholders were generally limited, with a few exceptions…The crisis had a generally minor effect on policyholders…Actions by state and federal regulators and the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC), among other factors, helped limit the effects of the crisis.”

While the financial crisis demonstrated the effectiveness of the current insurance regulation in the U.S., it is also evident that, as in any enterprise, there are areas for improvement. There are niches within the industry – financial guaranty, title and mortgage insurance come to mind – where regulatory standards and practices have proven less than optimal.

There are also national concerns that affect the industry. The lack of consistent disciplinary and enforcement standards across the states for agents, brokers, insurers and reinsurers is one obvious concern. Similarly, the inconsistent use of permitted practices and other solvency-related regulatory options could lead to regulatory arbitrage. At a time when insurance regulators in the U.S. call for a level playing field with rivals internationally, these regulatory differences represent an example of possible unlevel playing fields at home that deserve regulatory attention and correction.

A Bloomberg News story in January 2014, for example, quoted one insurer as planning to switch its legal domicile from one state to another because the change would allow, according to a spokeswoman for the company, a level playing field with rivals related to reserves, accounting and reinsurance rules.

For insurers operating within the national system of state-based regulation, one would hope that that level playing field would cross domiciles, and no insurer would be disadvantaged because of its domicile in any of the 56 jurisdictions.

But perhaps one of the greatest challenges to the state-based system of regulation is the added cost of that regulation, partly engendered by duplicative requests for information and regulatory structures that have not been harmonized among states. How to respond to that may represent the biggest gap in the FIO report. It may also be the biggest opportunity for both insurers and regulators to rationalize the current regulatory system and ensure the future of state-based regulation.


The FIO report notes that the cost per dollar of premium of the state-based insurance regulatory system “is approximately 6.8 times greater for an insurer operating in the United States than for an insurer operating in the United Kingdom.” It quotes research estimating that our state-based system increases costs for property-casualty insurers by $7.2 billion annually and for life insurers by $5.7 billion annually.

According to the report, “regulation at the federal level would improve uniformity, efficiency and consistency, and it would address concerns with uniform supervision of insurance firms with national and global activities.”

Yet the report does not recommend the replacement of state-based regulation with federal regulation, but with a hybrid system of regulation that may remain primarily state-based, but does include some federal involvement.

At least one rationale for this is clearly admitted in the report. As it says, “establishing a new federal agency to regulate all or part of the $7.3 trillion insurance sector would be a significant undertaking … (that) would, of necessity, require an unequivocal commitment from the legislative and executive branches of the U.S. government.”

The result of that limitation is a significant difference between diagnosis and prescription in the FIO report. Having diagnosed the cost of the state-based regulatory system as an unnecessary $13 billion burden on policyholders, the FIO's policy recommendations may possibly be characterized as, for the most part, the policy equivalent of “take two aspirin and call me in the morning.”

Still, as the Dodd-Frank Act showed, even Congress can muster the will to impose regulatory solutions if a crisis becomes acute enough and broad enough. Unlikely as that may now seem, the threat of federal radical surgery should not be what is required for states to move toward addressing the recommendations of the FIO report.

Indeed, actions of the NAIC over the past few years have addressed much of what is in the FIO report. Now the NAIC, industry and other stakeholders can take the opportunity provided by the report to work to resolve some of the issues identified in it. The possible outcome of an even greater federal reluctance to become involved in insurance regulation would only be a side benefit. The real goal should be a regulatory system that is more streamlined, less duplicative, more responsive, more cost-efficient and more supportive of innovation.

Kevin Bingham has shared this article on behalf of the authors of the white paper on which it is based: Gary Shaw, George Hanley, Howard Mills, Richard Godfrey, Steve Foster, Tim Cercelle, Andrew N. Mais and David Sherwood. They can reached through him. The white paper can be downloaded here