Tag Archives: distributed denial of service attack

Why More Attacks Via IoT Are Inevitable

The massive distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack that cut consumers off from their favorite web haunts recently was the loudest warning yet that cyber criminals can be expected to take full advantage of gaping security flaws attendant to the Internet of Things (IoT).

For much of the day, on Friday, Oct. 21, it was not possible for most internet users to consistently access Twitter, Spotify, Netflix, Amazon, Tumblr, Reddit and PayPal.

Using malware, dubbed Mirai, an attacker had assembled a sprawling network of thousands of hacked CCTV video cameras and digital video recorders, then directed this IoT botnet to swamp the marquee web properties with waves of nuisance pings, thus blocking out legitimate visitors.

See also: Insurance and the Internet of Things  

Mirai is designed to take over lightweight BusyBox software widely used to control IoT devices. The source code for Mirai can be found online and is free for anyone to use. ThirdCertainty asked Justin Harvey, security consultant at Gigamon, and John Wu, CEO of security startup Gryphon, to flesh out the wider context and discuss the implications. The text has been edited for clarity and length:

ThirdCertainty: Why do you think these attackers went after BusyBox systems?

Wu: Because Busybox is lightweight; it’s used on most IoT devices that have limited memory and processing. Busybox is a utility with lots of useful commands.

Harvey: BusyBox is very standardized. It is highly used in the field, and it also runs Linux, so the internals are very straightforward and easy to duplicate in testing systems.

3C: How did the attacker locate so many vulnerable devices?

Wu: Standard IP scanning would identify the devices, and then the attacker could use the admin interface to install the malware. These devices had weak default passwords that allowed hackers to install Mirai.

Harvey: Cross mapping manufacturers with types of devices. Then using the website Shodan to get a list of open devices. Once they had the list of devices, they could create a massively parallel script to step through each and determine whether they used the version of the OS they wanted.

3C: How many devices did they need to control to carry out three waves of attacks over the course of 12 hours?

Harvey: 300,000 to 500,000.

 Wu: Probably a few hundred thousand devices. Because it’s distributed, there is no way to simply block all the IP addresses.

3C: Are there a lot of vulnerable devices still out there, ripe for attack?

Harvey: Yes! Shodan specializes in noting which devices are out there and which are open to the world. The devices used in this attack were but a small fraction of open or insecure IoT devices.

Wu: We don’t know exactly how many devices are still out there as sleeper bots. Mirai also is actively recruiting new bots. From what I understand, these IoT devices had open channels, and the users had practiced poor password protection for root access to install additional components.

3C: What do you expect attackers to focus on next?

Wu: I would expect the attacks to get larger and more sophisticated. Mirai also is working in the background to recruit more devices. The next attack may not be as public because they’ve already shown what the botnet network is capable of.

3C: What should individual consumers be most concerned about at this point?

Harvey: Consumers need better education on changing the default access and security controls of their IoT devices. Manufacturers need to take security seriously. Period. Congress needs to step in, conduct some hearings on IoT issues and perhaps regulate these devices.

 Wu: Consumers need to be concerned if their device is one of the devices already compromised or at risk of being compromised. They should contact the manufacturer to ask if a security patch is available. A simple solution would be to take the device offline, if it’s something you can live without.

3C: What is the most important thing company decision-makers need to understand?

Wu: If you are dependent on the internet for your revenue and business, you should be planning alternative communication channels. If DNS is critical to your business, you should look at backups to just one service provider. Let people know that, if email is down, you can still get business done over the phone.

Harvey: Businesses need to understand the implications to running IoT devices within their companies and question the business need for using IoT devices versus the convenience.

See also: How the ‘Internet of Things’ Affects Strategic Planning  

This article originally appeared on ThirdCertainty.

A Look At Cyber Risk Of Financial Institutions

Overview Of The Risk
There were more than 26 million new strains of malware released into circulation in 2011. Such a rate would produce nearly 3,000 new strains of malware an hour! Almost two-thirds of U.S. firms report that they have been the victim of cyber-security incidents or information breaches. The Privacy Rights Clearinghouse reported that since 2005, more than 534 million personal records have been compromised. In 2011, 273 breaches were reported, involving 22 million sensitive personal records. The Ponemon Group, whose Cost of Data Breach Study is widely followed every year, indicated a total cost per record of $214 in 2011, an increase of over 55% ($138) compared to the cost in 2005 when the study began.

Other surveys are consistent. NetDiligence, a company that provides network security services on behalf of insurers, reported in their “2012 Cyber Risk and Privacy Liability Forum” the results of their analysis of 153 data or privacy breach claims paid by insurance companies between 2006 and 2011. On average, the study said, payouts on claims made in the first five years total $3.7 million per breach, compared with an average of $2.4 million for claims made from 2005 through 2010.

And attacks simply don't target large companies. According to Symantec's 2010 SMB Protection report, small busineses:

  • Sustained an average loss of $188,000 per breach
  • Comprised 73% of total cyber-crime targets/victims
  • Lost confidential data in 42% of all breaches
  • Suffered direct financial losses in 40% of all breaches

Indeed, according to the 2011 Verizon Data Breach Report, in 2010, 57% of all data breaches were at companies with 11 to 100 employees. Interestingly, it was the Report's opinion that 96% of such breaches could have been prevented with appropriate controls. Bottom line: cyber attacks are here to stay — and in many ways, they are getting worse.

A Look At The Financial Institution Sector
Willy Sutton once infamously remarked that he robs bank because “that's where the money is.” According to Professor Udo Helmbrecht, the Executive Director of the European Networking and Information Security Agency, if Willy Sutton was alive today, he would rob banks online.

Criminals today can operate miles, or even oceans, away from the target. “The number and sophistication of malicious incidents have increased dramatically over the past five years and is expected to continue to grow,” according to Gordon Snow, Assistant Director of the Cyber Division of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (testifying before the House Financial Services Committee, Subcommittee on Financials Institutions and Consumer Credit). “As businesses and financial institutions continue to adopt Internet-based commerce systems, the opportunity for cybercrime increases at the retail and consumer level.” Indeed, according to Snow, the FBI is investigating 400 reported account takeover cases from bank accounts of US businesses. These cases total $255 million in fraudulent transfers and has resulted in $85 million in actual losses.

According to the FBI, there are eight cyber threats that expose both the finances and reputation of financial institutions: account takeovers, third-party payment process breaches, securities and market trading company breaches, ATM skimming breaches, mobile banking breaches, insider access, supply chain infiltration, and telecommunications network disruption.

It was telecommunications network disruption that dominated the news in 2012.

Otherwise known as a distributed denial of service attack, US banks were attacked repeatedly throughout the year by sophisticated cyber “criminals” whose attacks were eventually sourced to the nation of Iran in what would truly be considered a Cyber War attack against this country's infrastructure.

Among the institutions hit were PNC Bank, Wells Fargo, HSBC, and Citibank, among many others. Big or small, it made no difference. At the end of the day, as many as 30 US banking firms are expected to be targeted in this wave of cyber attacks, according to the security firm RSA. And it is likely that we are not at the end of the day. On January 9, 2013, the computer hacking group that has claimed responsibility for cyber attacks on PNC Bank vowed to continue trying to shut down American banking websites for at least the next six months.

That is not to say that financial situations only had to worry about distributed denial of service attacks launched by hostile nation states in 2012.

On December 13, 2012 the Financial Services Information Sharing and Analysis Center, which shares information throughout the financial sector about terrorist threats, warned the US financial services industry that a Russian cyber-gangster is preparing to rob American banks and their customers of millions of dollars. According to the computer security firm, McAfee, the cyber criminal, who calls himself the “Thief-in-Law,” already has infected hundreds of computers of unwitting American customers in preparation to steal that bank account data.

Of course not all threats look like they come from the latest 007 flick. On October 12, 2012, the Associated Press reported TD Bank had begun notifying approximately 260,000 customers from Maine to Florida that the company may been affected by a data breach. Company spokeswoman Rebecca Acevedo confirmed to the Associated Press that unencrypted data backup tapes were “misplaced in transport” in March 2012. She said the tapes contained personal information, including account information and security numbers. It is unclear why the bank waited until October to notify customers. Over 46 states now have mandatory notification laws that dictate prompt notification to bank customers of missing or stolen “Personally Identifiable Information.” Failure to make timely notification can, and often does, prompt customer lawsuits and regulatory investigations.

The bottom line: you cannot be a financial institution operating in the 21st Century and not have a cyber risk management plan which includes the purchase of cyber insurance.

The Cyber Insurance Market
With these facts, it is not surprising that the cyber insurance market has grown tremendously from its initial beginning in 2000. Starting with what was the brainchild of AIG and Lloyds of London, the market has grown to over 40 insurance providers. A widely accepted statistic is that the market now produces over $1 billion in premium to insurance carriers on a worldwide basis.

Despite the increasing claim activity, informal discussions with the market continue to indicate that cyber risk is a profitable business. Perhaps, it is for this reason, cyber premium rates are flat to down 5% according to industry reports in the market where rates in property-casualty are generally increasing.

Carriers also see this as an area where there are many non-buyers, and statistics seem to back them up. According to the “Chubb 2012 Public Company Risk Survey: Cyber,” 65% of public companies surveyed do not purchase cyber insurance, yet 63% of decision-makers are concerned about this cyber risk. A risk area with a high level of concern but little purchase of insurance is an insurance broker's dream. In a recent Zurich survey of 152 organizations, only 19% of those surveyed have bought cyber insurance despite the fact that 76% of companies surveyed expressed concern about their information security and privacy.

It is unclear why there aren't more buyers but most of the industry believes it's a lack of education. For example, previous surveys indicated that over 33% of companies incorrectly believe that cyber risk is covered under their general corporate liability policy.

It is then perhaps not surprising that the Betterley 2012 market report stated “we think this market has nowhere to go but up” Although, they quickly qualified, “as long as carriers can still write at a profit.”