Tag Archives: digital

Lowering Costs of Customer Acquisition

Customer acquisition costs are a familiar problem throughout the business world. On average, businesses spend five times more to acquire a new customer than to keep an existing customer, according to Khalid Saleh at Invesp. Companies focus more attention on acquisition than retention, too: About 44% dedicate themselves to acquisition, while only 18% focus on retention.

For insurers, customer acquisition is even pricier. “The insurance industry has the highest customer acquisition costs of any industry. It costs seven to nine times more for an insurance agency to attract a new customer than to retain one,” says Lynn Thomas, president of 21st Century Management Consulting.

While customer retention strongly affects insurers’ bottom lines, new customers are essential to maintain a steady pace of growth and build a competitive edge. Controlling costs while still attracting new customers presents a challenge for insurance companies.

How Expensive Are New Insurance Customers?

When you compare the high price of customer acquisition with the low net margin of property and casualty insurance — which hovers between 3% and 8%, according to Mary Hall at Investopedia — It’s easy to see why acquisition costs are a concern.

Direct insurers have had an advantage in this area for quite some time. As early as 2014, William Blair & Co. analyst Adam Klauber determined that direct insurers like Progressive and Geico paid an average of $487 to acquire a customer. Meanwhile, captive insurers like State Farm and Allstate paid $792 on average.

See also: Who Is Your Customer; How Is the Experience?  

When independent agents were added to the mix, Klauber said, the average cost of customer acquisition rose to $900 per customer.

One reason new customer costs are so high in insurance is that the industry has lagged in adopting digital technologies that meet the expectations of today’s insurance shoppers, say Tanguy Catlin and fellow researchers at McKinsey.

Customers want simplicity, 24/7 availability and quick delivery. They also demand clarity about pricing, value and services designed for the digital age, no matter what they’re shopping for. “They have the same expectations whatever the service provider, insurers included,” according to Catlin et al.

Improving technologies also helps transform customers’ perception of insurance as an outdated, unapproachable industry to one that is personalized and consistently present. When insurance is easier to access, customers are more likely to see it as a valuable and important facet of their lives.

KPIs in Customer Acquisition

It’s important to differentiate between customer acquisition cost (CAC) and cost per acquisition (CPA). While they sound similar at the outset, Proof’s Drew Housman outlines the difference: “CPA measures the cost of an action, CAC measures the cost of acquiring a customer.”

For example, if you want to measure the effectiveness of clicks on a digital ad or buy button, use CPA. To factor in every click a customer makes on the way to completing the transaction, use CAC.

Tracking both CPA and CAC is important, however, because not all methods of acquiring new customers yield results in the same period, says Gordon Donnelly at WordStream. For instance, combining SEO and content marketing with Google and Facebook advertising results may make insurers think their SEO is overperforming while their advertising is underperforming. This is because SEO and content marketing “typically take longer to yield results,” Donnelly says.

While a good customer acquisition cost varies by the type of insurer, one way to track CAC effectively is to balance it against customer lifetime value (CLV), Jordan Ehrlich at DemandJump says. Customers who offer a higher lifetime value may be worth more to acquire at the outset.

Ideally, the ratio between CLV and CAC will always show a higher number for the former metric: A customer’s overall value will always be higher than the cost to acquire the customer. “The less it costs you to acquire a single customer and the more overall value that customer represents, the more profit you stand to make,” Donnelly says.

Treating customer acquisition, retention and value as three facets of the same goal can improve insurers’ ability to attract, retain and profit from customer relationships. “Since new policyholders immediately become current policyholders, your improved customer experience increases the likelihood that they will stay with your company, refer you to others and so on,” Patricia Moore at One Inc. says.

How to Lower Costs Without Losing New Customers

Cutting customer acquisition costs won’t help an insurance company if it also results in fewer new customers. Fortunately, there are several effective methods for reducing these costs while improving the quality of new customer relationships.

1. Use Incidental Channels

Incidental channels are products or services that deliver value separately from insurance but that build a customer relationship and gather data that ultimately support an insurance relationship, says Kyle Nakatsuji, principal at American Family Ventures.

These channels can help lower customer acquisition costs and improve engagement by demonstrating value to customers early in the process. Customers are more amenable to an eventual insurance purchase because they’ve already received value from the service and have perhaps considered how insurance could further improve that value. These services can also perform data-collecting functions, making it even simpler for new customers to choose and purchase coverage, Nakatsuji says.

2. Leverage Retention by Seeking Referrals

An added benefit of incidental channels is that they make it easier for your current customers to recommend your insurance services to potential new customers, says Srikumar Rao, author of Happiness at Work.

For example, imagine an app that helps homeowners identify and mitigate the most common causes of household fires. When a loyal customer uses the app, benefits from it and recommends it to others, that customer “is no longer a supplicant when she draws the attention of her contacts to you. She is the enthusiastic and proud bearer of a gift. She has bounty that she will bestow on the deserving,” Rao says.

Not only have you made it easier for your loyal customers to refer their associates to your company, you’ve made it gratifying to them to do so.

3. Recognize Why Loyal Customers’ Referrals Matter

Customer retention has a profound effect on the bottom line. When customer retention increases by only 5%, profits increase by 25% to 95%, according to research by Frederick Reichheld at Bain & Co.

Nurturing relationships with existing customers builds trust, allowing companies to offer additional products and services with a lower chance of rejection, startup adviser Yoav Vilner says. It also increases the chance of attracting new customers through referrals — by far one of the least expensive methods of customer acquisition.

Referrals, or word of mouth, account for 20% to 50% of all purchasing decisions, say Jacques Bughin, Jonathan Doogan and Ole Jørgen Vetvik at McKinsey. Experiential word of mouth, in which existing customers share their own firsthand experiences with a product or service, is perhaps the most powerful. It’s also the most common: 50% to 80% of word-of-mouth marketing is based on a consumer’s personal experiences.

Loyal customers are more likely to speak highly of their insurance company when services exceed their expectations, according to Bughin and fellow researchers. As a result, insurance companies that underpromise and overdeliver stand a better chance of generating praise and referrals from their existing customer base.

When should insurance companies ask for referrals? Sooner is better, says Eric Wlison, national account director at Kaplan. Waiting until a customer’s transaction is finished increases the chances that something might go wrong, spoiling the customer’s inclination to speak positively of the insurance company to friends and family.

“Remember that it is human nature to want to help others succeed. If you don’t ask for referrals you’ll likely get zero, and if you ask and get zero you are still at the same spot as if you hadn’t asked,” Wilson says.

4. Embrace Digital Tools That Promote Loyalty

Here is where customer loyalty and technology intersect to drive down the costs of acquiring new customers.

Nearly every consumer-facing industry has grappled with how to meet evolving customer expectations. Any fast food restaurant will offer bundled meals as well as a la carte menu items from which customers can choose. Even change-averse airlines and cable providers have learned to offer customizable levels of service because that’s what their customers have demanded.

See also: The Missing Piece for Customer Experience  

This is the point the team at McKinsey is making when they say insurance customers want simplicity and quick delivery. Today’s customers want to be able to choose from any and all available product lines, regardless of which carriers provide them.

This is what the BOLT Platform facilitates. Our users are able to offer and sell their own products alongside bundled products from other carriers because, ultimately, customers only care about getting the coverage they need. The best way to meet this need is to become a one-stop-shop for your customers.

Insurance companies that embrace this will earn increasing customer loyalty. And, as new potential customers come forward, it will require less time, less money and less effort to convince them to buy.

What Digital Can Do for Disability Claims

Healthcare is being transformed by advances in artificial intelligence, virtual reality, machine learning, sensors and other innovative technologies. Practically everybody has a smartphone, making it easier than ever to gather data and consent to third-party access. Unique data insights mean providers can offer people products and services tailored to them individually.

For insurers, digital technology offers new ways to manage risk that relies less on face-to-face and traditional clinical assessment; this is why there is so much interest in understanding how innovation might work. Selected comments from four key players in the digital health ecosystem make clear the appeal of putting two and two together.

Thomas Lethenborg at Monsenso, a mobile platform for mental health, said, “Digital technology helps an individual move from reactive behavior to being more proactive – and this changes the paradigm in particular with engagement.”

It’s a view shared by David Forster of Thrive, a digital interventions app for mental health: “Data drives our understanding of what works best for the individual.” According to Forster, the success of digital technology in clinical settings points to real opportunities in insurance: “It makes it possible to provide policyholders help with illness prevention, early detection and assistance on a personal level.”

Ian Prangley, of exercise rehabilitation service TrackActive, continued the theme when he said, “For insurers, digital solutions can drive connectedness, engagement and customer satisfaction while enabling people to self-manage their health. Harnessing data insights and implementing artificial intelligence (AI) is key to achieving this.”

See also: Why to Digitize Disability Claims  

A comment by Danny Dressler of AIMO, an ecosystem integrating intelligent motion analysis into musculoskeletal care, added further confirmation: “As more and better data is gathered and processed safely, AI offers the most promise to take care of people’s health, and fix issues in both healthcare and the life and health insurance sectors.”

By using digital means, insurers can create scalable, automated, speedy ways of supporting people when they need help the most. Proponents argue it offers better health outcomes for policyholders that will reduce the costs associated with long disability claims – a win-win for both insurers and consumers.

Dressler also said that “technology like ours lets insurers offer customers new solutions such as dynamic pricing and automated claims and even help to prevent claims from happening.” Lethenborg says it represents “an opportunity to ensure the data collected gives holistic insights and analytics that we can use to intervene more rapidly, when help is needed.”

But it’s crucial the highest levels of privacy and data protection are guaranteed and operators are in full compliance with regulations. An imperfect balance of privacy with innovation is a deal-breaker for consumers.

Forster is clear how delicate this balance is: “We recognize our responsibility to safeguard users’ data, but at the same time information technology empowers people to make choices and participate actively in managing their own health – it puts them in the driving seat for the first time.”

For digital solutions to be convincing, research and scientific evidence are needed, but with newly made services, long-term experience is scarce, and a leap of faith is required.

Dressler spoke for all in saying, “We maintain strong links to scientific institutions because the general technologies underpinning our solutions emerges from scientific thesis…[This means] we only implement new features or functions after a rigorous validation process, especially because we are asking people to trust us with their health and well-being.”

Dealing with high volumes of data is not without risk, particularly when it’s shared with third parties.

See also: Digital Innovation in Life Insurance  

Prangley has pointed to recent concerns over how sensitive data is being used to highlight the challenges faced, “The key is to anonymize and protect data, and have customers consent to sharing it on the understanding it will be used solely to improve their health.” This insight is driven home by Lethenborg, who said, “Transparency about how the data will be used is essential to building trust.”

Digitization has already brought new products and services that have had positive medical and scientific impact. As Prangley said, “Technology has connected people and changed how we relate to each other. There [are] arguments for and against this of course, but in the context of health and wellbeing we believe it’s a great thing.”

With mental health and musculoskeletal problems as the leading causes of disability claims in every market, these companies can bring digital solutions and opportunities – and health insurers can also feel great about them.

Small Insurers and Digital Priorities

From what I’ve seen in recent insurance technology news updates, it appears that the insurance industry is finally ripe for change, ready to make the leap to digital technologies that will lead us into tomorrow. Or is it?

Consider these core drivers of change: digital innovations such as cloud, telematics, IoT, analytics and AI, mobile, real-time 24/7 access to data, the growing need for on-demand products and, in general, using these transformative technologies to create operational efficiencies, adopt new business models and anticipate and exceed customer expectations.

Even though we know these technologies are enabling new insurance products, methods, processes, services and business models, there is still an omnipresent culture that hangs on to the troubling “it’s the way we’ve always done it” battle cry. This is often voiced by insurers that share their frustrations with being challenged to change existing culture from inside out to address these digital drivers.

My view is that, while many of the larger insurers are making the hard move to adopt digital technologies, it’s still not a priority for many small- to medium-sized insurance companies. And now, more than ever, there is a certain urgency to having that discussion. Tanguy Catlin, senior partner with McKinsey & Co., when addressing the issue, referred to it as the “tipping point” that is “where those that have not adapted their [digital] strategies fade away.”

See also: Darwinian Shift to Digital Insurance 2.0  

In research results published by MIT Sloan Management Review (SMR) and Deloitte’s Digital practice, 87% of executives queried believe that digital technologies will disrupt their industries, yet only 44% felt they were adequately preparing for it. Gerald Kane, professor of information systems at the Carroll School of Management at Boston College and MIT Sloan Management Review guest editor for the Digital Business Initiative, compares insurers’ thinking about digital disruption to homeowners in disaster-prone areas who often seem caught off guard when an actual hurricane or cyclone strikes.

Source: MIT Sloan Management Review

So, why isn’t adoption of digital technologies a priority for more small- to medium-sized insurers? While many see the opportunities presented by digital technologies, perhaps they don’t believe the likelihood is high that digital will actually disrupt their own organization. But the authors of the research note that, if digital technologies represent an opportunity for your organization, they also represent a threat for your competitors — and vice versa.

I get it, change is hard… but, the argument, “we are not in a financial position to prioritize” is irrelevant to the discussion of digital technology investments. Competitors aren’t waiting for your company to be in a better “financial position” before they act. Moreover, because at some point in the coming years insurers will need to replace their growing faction of retirement-age employees with a younger, more tech-savvy labor force. And in a war for the best talent, the A and B players have absolutely no desire to work on outdated systems. So, what does that mean for the future of your company?

See also: Digital Insurance, Anyone?  

Just remember, technology is an accelerator for your company and your staff. In other words, the more digital technologies that are put into play, the greater and faster the return. Those insurers that ignore its call will fall further and further behind until they reach the tipping point and slowly fade away. Remember what happened to Blockbuster Video when it failed to adapt in a time of digital change. Don’t be a Blockbuster in a Netflix world.

Is Digital Really Rocking the Industry?

For those of us who have a front row seat to the digital transformation of the customer experience in life insurance, there is a sense that our world is being, or about to be, rocked.

In a way, it is; however, when you understand the customer experience cycle and all its component phases, you realize that the job of attracting new customers is, at its heart, fundamentally the same, but now there are more options for doing so.

The experience cycle, a model developed by Dubberly & Evenson, 2008, is a great framework for understanding the phases that turn a prospect into a customer and a customer into a raving fan of your brand. While life insurance customers are seldom characterized as raving fans, there’s no reason the industry shouldn’t continue to strive for ways to achieve enthusiasm.

If we are to create raving fans, we must consider all the phases of the customer experience deeply. Then we must do our jobs right at each phase, understanding what drives satisfaction and behavior, what turns people off and what touchpoints are most important or provide missed opportunities.

Prior to the digital age, it was hard to do this in any setting other than in person or face to face with an agent. Now, if we are to recognize omnichannel expectations, we need to ensure we are covering all of these bases in whatever channel we are using. And if we are using multiple channels, we had better be saying and conveying the same thing, because gaps or inconsistencies create mistrust.

For example, if your website offers a needs assessment or a wellness scoring system, your agent channel should be well versed in it, too. Imagine someone engaging with your online tools, getting a result and then switching to your agent channel for advice about it. Then imagine the agent doesn’t know about the tool, doesn’t understand it or, worse, chooses to dismiss it. How would it make that potential customer feel about your company?


See also: Digital Innovation in Life Insurance  

So a good starting point to avoiding that nightmare and others is to understand the phases of the customer experience cycle and make sure all channels are aligned similarly around the experience you want to create.

Here are the phases and what we should seek to achieve at each phase:

1) Connect and Attract: We must find the people who are best suited for what we offer and engage them in a way that’s meaningful to them, leading to openness to learning about what we can deliver.

Best suited means many things. With life insurance, in particular, it can mean health classification, financial status, need or even geography, as residents of certain states can’t get access to all products available. To figure out how to sort people, we need the most sophisticated tools at our disposal.

In addition, we must communicate in an authentic way, especially in scenarios where there is no human being talking with customers. If they are engaging in an online environment, the communication needs to “feel” human and real.

2) Orient: Here is where we help people understand what they should expect in the process, how long it takes and why we do things the way we do (e.g., asking personal questions). This helps set the expectation for what comes next so that they feel empowered and not “in the dark.”

3) Transact: Here is where we actually exchange a person’s time, data and money for a product. In life insurance, this is where the application lives and the way in which we take payment. There has been a great deal of industry focus and technology development around this phase to help life carriers improve the customer experience, work smarter (not harder) and attract new business by leveraging data and advanced analytics to use a more streamlined approach to assessing risk.

4) Extend and Retain: This is fancy talk for how we make sure we are delighting our new customers in unexpected ways and keeping them. For the life insurance industry, this phase will be particularly challenging, as it has been focused mostly on the process of how bills are received, preventing lapses and, ultimately, how claims are handled. These, however, are table stakes. Raving fans don’t come from meeting expectations; they come from exceeding them.

5) Advocate: Here is where a raving fan gets to tell others about his/her experience and presumably get others involved. While life insurance is generally a low-involvement product category, and one that is challenged by negativity associated with death, there are indirect ways to find positives within the experience.

We have an opportunity to create positive experiences through services, information exchange and learning and creating awareness of others’ experiences. The Ice Bucket Challenge for ALS is an example of where negative feelings of fear and helplessness were turned into people feeling empowered to help. The challenge went viral, creating much greater awareness and research funding for a disease that many knew little about. In what ways might the life insurance industry take a lesson from that?

The key to all of this is a deep understanding of your customers and potential customers coming from unrelenting curiosity, leading to compassion and empathy. Learning and embodying the tenets of the customer experience cycle is a good first step to understanding.

See also: Making Life Insurance Personal  

If you’d like to learn more, click here to register to join us for a complimentary 45-minute webinar with 15-minute Q&A on Thursday, May 24, 2018, at 2:00 p.m. ET in partnership with LexisNexis Risk Solutions. During this first webinar, our speakers will explore the first phase of the customer experience cycle — Connect and Attract — and share key insights and findings that life carriers can use to transform the customer experience in life insurance, starting at the point of marketing.

2 Paths to a New Take on Digital

As consumers, we know that digital has transformed the way we discover, engage and transact with businesses in every industry. From ordering coffee on our mobile devices to running our smart homes on voice-command, we expect all of our experiences to be fast and seamless.

The insurance industry has gone through its own digital transformation over the past five years. With a general acceptance that digital is here to stay, most insurers have incorporated digital into their organizations, implementing ad hoc capabilities to make their business faster and cheaper, creating online tools to further engage their distribution channels, and implementing table stakes technology in areas such as marketing, digital portals, customer self-service capabilities, and automation of some back-end processes.

As we move into 2018, digital is continuing to reshape the way insurers do business. The ecosystem of available capabilities has grown exponentially and industry leaders are starting to leave behind the “fast-follower” mentality, reallocating their investments into core capabilities that give them a more customer-centric view, as well as ways to differentiate themselves in the market.

Industry leaders are starting to leave behind the “fast-follower” mentality, reallocating their investments into core capabilities that give them a more customer-centric view, as well as ways to differentiate themselves in the market.

From our perspective, insurers will take one of two paths:

  1. Continue as followers, investing in only select digital capabilities that support their existing business model. This is a bottom-up, project-driven approach that identifies select digital capabilities within different parts of the value chain.
  2. Take a digital-first mindset by better understanding the end-to-end customer experience and how business models need to evolve in order to increase growth and reduce costs. This is a top-down organization transformation with the goal of becoming a digital and data-driven organization which can continuously reassess the business and operating model.

As the graphic opposite illustrates, taking a digital-first approach and synchronizing investments across functions and processes will promote success by enabling a digital strategy that is a “North Star” that guides continuously improvement rather than just a point in time assessment.

See also: Digital Insurance 2.0: Benefits  

The companies that develop a meaningful competitive advantage will design and implement digital platforms that can handle disruption and positively change cost structures. They will:

  • Build scalable systems, even for niche offerings,
  • Deliver an end-to-end customer experience, and
  • Change their business models to foster a test and learn environment that helps them improve how they go to market. These leaders will be the most likely to quickly adjust and grow as the industry continues to become more digital.

Building a digital platform

Although we tend to understand digital transformation and modernization of technology platforms as sequential, multi-year events with multi-million dollar price tags, finite delivery dates and fixed realization periods, true modernization requires a foundational
shift in the organizational culture, operating model, and underlying architecture that enables business flexibility and agility.

Building a digital platform that will take your company into the future — not just respond to current needs — is critical to prolonged success.

Insurers are currently enabling access to data across various domains and dimensions, but the companies going the extra mile to design a futuristic platform architecture are the most likely to benefit in the long term. Future-oriented platform architectures should be able to:

  • Enable more granular services,
  • Provide flexibility when reacting to traditional demands and responsiveness to disruptive emerging products,
  • Support business models and technology needs beyond now standard core platform capabilities (e.g., policy, billing and claims systems).
  • Feature consumer-centric architecture built on the core guiding principles of atomic components and services vs. monolithic applications,
  • Enable reusability across constituent groups and processes vs. process-centric solutions,
  • Assemble best-of-breed technologies, capabilities, and/or service models vs. being just a broker of services.

Enabling your digital platform

Gone are the days of a simple buy/build/rent conversation where companies could seek to house all capabilities within their own walls. Now, everything from insurtech incubators to white-labelled products are revolutionizing the way insurance is bought and sold. The rise of flexible, digital B2B2C platforms is giving rise to faster, better, and previously unconsidered partnerships across the insurance and retirement spectrum.

Industry leaders are identifying how they can extract value from partnerships in all areas of their organization, whether by providing newer customer engagement models, adding revenue streams, or reducing cost structures, all while building digital ecosystems that can easily integrate with these strategic partners. These partnerships are enabling companies to respond more nimbly to changes in market trends, consumer expectations and nascent technology, creating frictionless capital flows across the value chain.

Better know your customers by serving them better

While many insurers have been actively investing in customer facing digital capabilities for the past several years, the industry as a whole is not yet fully realizing customer and economic value. As insurers continue to respond to constantly evolving customer expectations, a holistic, data-driven approach that drives a detailed understanding of the customer and the contribution of digital initiatives to actual business value will be critical to meaningful ROI.

Developing a detailed understanding of customers and their end-to-end journeys is necessary to improve customer value. Knowing your customers – not just as segments but individuals – will help you pinpoint opportunities and effectively optimize their experience across all channels and throughout their lifetimes. Tying these digital initiatives to measurable business value from the beginning is critical to justifying the case for investment and creating a framework for measuring the effectiveness and impact of various initiatives.

With a strong, flexible framework in place, companies will be able to re-focus time and money into revenue-driving capabilities like external partnerships, invest in data-driven digital capabilities to improve customer value, and build back-end processes to support platform scalability.

Don’t forget about back-end processes

All the recent hype about insurtech and customer interactions has shifted attention away from digital considerations beyond technology and customer experience. However, leading companies’ back-end processes will support a digital environment. In a rapidly advancing industry, the companies out in front are transforming their processes to automate repetitive, business rule-driven work; this is rapidly reducing costs, improving controls, enhancing quality, enabling scalability, and facilitating effective 24/7 service.

Future profitability and ROI hinge on being extremely responsive to business and market conditions and making business processes digital. The market leaders of the future will have fully digitally enabled operating models that feature a low cost profile, increase automation and efficiencies, offer an easy end-user experience. All of this will help them accelerate innovation and invent the future of insurance instead of just reacting to it.

See also: Digital Playbooks for Insurers (Part 1)  

Where we’re headed

The world of insurance has already become digital. Whether you are a personal lines insurer assessing digital sales and service platforms or a life insurer trying to understand interactions with your end consumers, most of the industry has adopted digital agendas and many companies are is seriously trying to become digital-first organizations. Current frontrunners are redirecting their roadmaps and investments to high-priority business areas differentiate them in the market.

Over the next five to ten years, all insurers will be able to take advantage of a broader ecosystem of available tools, leveraging test and learn capabilities that promote innovate in an industry that has not been reinvented for quite some time. Anyone still waiting on the sidelines is in jeopardy of falling so far behind recovery will be extremely difficult. Don’t blink and miss your chance.

Most of the insurance industry has adopted digital agendas and many companies are seriously trying to become digital-first organizations. If you aren’t doing the latter, you risk falling behind; if you haven’t done the former, you may never catch up.


  • Industry leaders are starting to leave behind the “follower” mentality, reallocating their investments into core capabilities that give them a more customer-centric view, as well as ways to differentiate themselves in the market. Whether you are a “fast- follower” (as opposed to just a follower) or a market innovator, you are likely to share essentially the same approach to establishing an agile organization.
  • The companies that develop a meaningful competitive advantage will design and implement digital platforms that can handle disruption. They will build scalable systems, deliver an end-to-end customer experience, and change their business models to foster a test and learn environment that helps them improve how they go to market. These leaders will be the most likely to quickly adjust and grow as the industry continues to become more digital.
  • With a strong, flexible framework in place, companies will be able to re-focus time and money into revenue-driving capabilities like external partnerships, invest in data-driven digital capabilities to improve customer value, and build back-end processes to support platform scalability.

This article was written by Jamie Yoder, Tom Kavanaugh, Juneen Belknap and Alex Jaeger.