Tag Archives: body mass index

Rapid Diagnostics for Life Policies

For years, insurance companies have taken steps to improve the life insurance underwriting experience in the hope of removing obstacles and decreasing not-taken ratios. To that end, some have forgone the traditional exam altogether in favor of simplified issue. But the truth is, consumers still aren’t flocking to life insurers, and the results of these efforts have been incremental.

Force Diagnostics has taken a different approach. We’ve developed a consumer-centric process featuring rapid testing that delivers results in 25 minutes. Tests are performed outside of the home in retail clinics and pharmacies, and results are immediately transmitted directly to the carrier’s underwriting engine for immediate processing. Because of the speed to results, innovative insurers and reinsurers could offer an accurate quote for life insurance to their consumers within 24 hours. And with the benefit of testing with fluids (HbA1C for diabetes, cotinine for nicotine, lipids for cardiovascular risk and the presence of the HIV virus, as well as body mass index and blood pressure), insurers may offer the majority of their products quickly and with assurance.

See also: Next Generation of Underwriting Is Here  

The potential results of using this new process can be seen in this underwriting performance calculator.

Once the calculator is downloaded, you may select a typical life insurance policy from a dropdown menu and enter assumptions that reflect an existing underwriting process. The calculator then shows a comparison on underwriting costs, internal rate of return (or IRR) increases, issued policy increases and the potential effects on persistency. At the end, total costs per app are calculated, as are total profits.

There is tremendous value in improving the customer experience throughout the underwriting process.

Will Policies Break Down Into Apps?

With the news that Uber is partnering with Metromile to offer Uber drivers “pay-per-mile” insurance, along with AirBnB announcing host protection insurance to supplement existing insurance policies on rooms and houses, we may be seeing the first cracks in the decades-old marketplace for all-encompassing insurance policies.

And really the change should not surprise us. After all, it was just a few years ago when an airline ticket bought you everything: the seat you wanted, free drinks and hot meals even in the economy cabin and transportation for your luggage. These days, your ticket buys you admittance to the inside of the airplane-and basically nothing else. Every other option is now on an a la carte menu-Wi-Fi, beverages, meals, bags, preferred seating, movies. The whole experience is an upsell by the airlines.

Now that the door has been cracked a bit, what might be next? Well, as seen with the awesome app MyFitnessPal being acquired by UnderArmour, in industry after industry the advantage is all about the apps and the data. And if apps in cars can now track how far we drive and how often we’re slamming on the brakes, to save us money on our auto insurance, might we also be able to save some money on our health insurance by providing our health data to our carriers as well?

Fitbit

After all, when I step on my Fitbit Aria scale, it knows my weight and body mass index (BMI). MyFitnessPal knows what I’m eating and drinking, and, if I’m lying, the scale will catch me. If I go paleo and lose 10 pounds or complete an hour of CrossFit every day, shouldn’t I be rewarded with a lower health premium? Previously, you’d have to take a blood test and tell the underwriter if you were a smoker. But what if my rates could vary based on how healthy a lifestyle I’m leading?

And once you drive your health through this gap, you can disaggregate any part of our lives into the proverbial Chinese menu of costs. Might I pay more for life insurance if I drive my family vs. flying, which is inherently less safe? What about feeding my travel itinerary into an app and getting personalized travel insurance based on what I do on vacation? And don’t get me started on the “Internet of Things.” We already provide our thermostat and carbon dioxide levels to Google through their Nest products-shouldn’t we get a rebate from our homeowner’s policy for keeping the house at a cool 68 degrees?
Digital Thermostat

What’s interesting about these scenarios is how easily they flow once you get started. Which is how the whole apps market works-you break down a process into pieces and start to handle the individual parts.

So why wouldn’t we want to do the same with our insurance?

As younger people continue to lead the movement toward the sharing economy, showing less propensity to care about exchanging data for cost savings, it’s an increasingly interesting question. In a recent survey by the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC), 43% of drivers between the ages of 18 and 29 said they would consider enrolling in a pay-per-mile insurance policy-and that’s with only a few carriers offering such programs. There’s no doubt that the world is moving to this model.

Of course, the $100,000 question is, “when is enough, enough?” Will altruistic motivation among younger people to lower greenhouse gases and pollution triumph? Will $200 a year less in health insurance premiums be worth the cost of sending your Fitbit data to your health insurer? Will I choose to let someone track my movements in my house in exchange for preferential rates on my homeowner’s policy?

While we can’t say for certain right now, it’s not a huge leap to expect that, at some point, we’ll all be asked to “name our price.”

Obesity as Disease: A Profound Change

The obesity rate in the U.S. has doubled in the past 15 years. More than 50% of the population is overweight, with a BMI (body mass index) between 25 and 30, and 30% have a BMI greater than 30 and are considered obese. Less than 20% of the population is at a healthy weight, with a BMI less than 25.

On June 16, 2013, the American Medical Association voted to declare obesity a disease rather than a comorbidity factor, a decision that will affect 78 million adults. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services said the costs to U.S. businesses related to obesity exceed $13 billion each year. With the pending implementation of ICD (International Classification of Diseases) 10 codes, the reclassification of obesity is is fast becoming a reality and will dramatically affect workers’ compensation and cases related to the American Disability Act and amendments.

Before the AMA’s obesity reclassification, ICD-9 code 278 related to obesity-related medical complications rather than to obesity. The new ICD-10 coding system now identifies obesity as a disease, which needs to be addressed medically. Obesity can now become a secondary claim, and injured workers will be considered obese if they gain weight because of medications, cannot maintain a level of fitness because of a work-related injury or if their BMI exceeds 30. The conditions are all now considered work-related and must be treated as such.

The problem of obesity for employers is not confined to workers’ compensation. The Americans with Disability Act Amendment of 2008 allows for a broader scope of protection for disabilities. The classification of obesity as a disease now places an injured worker in a protected class pursuant to the ADA amendment. In fact, litigation in this area has already started. A federal district court ruled in April 2014 that obesity itself may be a disability and will be allowed to move forward under the ADA (Joseph Whittaker v. America’s Car-Mart, Eastern District of Missouri).

Obesity as an impairment

Severe obesity is a physical impairment. A sales manager of a used car dealership was terminated for requesting accommodation and won $128,000. He was considered disabled, and the essential function of the job was walking, so he was terminated without reasonable accommodation.

The judge ruled that obesity is an accepted disability and allowed him to pursue his claim against his employer. This could have substantial impact for employers as injured workers could more easily argue that their obesity is a permanent condition that impedes their ability to return to work, as opposed to a temporary life choice that can be reversed.

The Equal Employment Opportunities Commission (EEOC) has recently chimed in on obesity. According to the EEOC, severe [or morbid] obesity body weight, of more than 100% over the norm, qualifies as impairment under the ADA without proof of an underlying physiological disorder. In the last year, we have seen an increasing number of EEOC-driven obesity-related lawsuits. Federal district courts support the EEOC’s position that an employee does not have to prove an underlying condition, especially in cases where there is evidence that the employer perceived the employee’s obesity as a disability or otherwise expressed prejudice against the employee for being obese.

Workers’ compensation claims are automatically reported to CMS Medicare with a diagnosis. When the new ICD-10 codes take effect, an obesity diagnosis will be included in the claim and will require co-digital payments, future medical care or continued treatment by Medicare.

There is good news on the horizon. Reporting of a claim only happens if there is a change in condition not primarily for obesity. It is recommended that baseline testing for musculoskeletal conditions be conducted at the time of hiring and on the existing workforce. In the event of a work-related injury, if a second test is conducted that reveals no change in condition, it results in no reportable claim and no obesity issue. In the event of ADA issues, the baseline can serve to determine pre-injury condition or the need for accommodations.

What does this mean to employers?

Obesity is now considered a physical impairment that may affect an employees’ ability to perform their jobs and receive special accommodations pursuant to the ADA.

An increasingly unhealthy workforce will pose many challenges for employers in the next few years. Those that can effectively improve the health and well-being of their employee population will have a significant advantage in reducing work comp claim costs, health and welfare benefits and retaining skilled workers.

Recent studies

In a four-year study conducted by Johns Hopkins with an N value of 7,690, 85% of the injured workers studied were classified as obese. In a Duke University study involving 11,728 participants, researchers revealed that employees with a BMI greater than 40 had 11.65 claims per 100 workers, and the average claim costs were $51,010. Employees with a BMI less than 25 had 5.8 claims per 100 workers, with average claim costs of $7,503. This study found that disability costs associated with obesity are seven times higher than for those with a BMI less than 30.

A National Institute of Health study with 42,000 participants found that work-related injuries for employees with a BMI between 25 and 30 had a 15% increase in injuries, and those with a BMI higher than 30 had an increase in work-related injuries of 48%.

The connection between obesity and on the job injuries is clear and extremely costly for employers. Many employers have struggled with justifying the cost of instituting wellness programs just on the basic ROI calculations. They were limiting the potential return on investment solely to the reduction in health insurance costs rather than including the costs on the workers’ comp side of the equation and the potential for lost business opportunities because of injury rates that do not meet customer performance expectations. Another key point is that many wellness programs do not include a focus on treating chronic disease that may cause workers to be more likely to be injured and prolong the recovery period.

Customer-driven safety expectations

There are many potential customers (governments, military, energy, construction) who require that their service providers, contractors and business partners meet specific safety performance requirements as measured by OSHA statistics (recordable incident rates) and National Council on Compensation Insurance (NCCI) rating (experience modifiers) and, in some cases, a full review by 3rd party organizations such as ISNet World.

Working for the best customers often requires that your company’s safety record be in the top 25th percentile to even qualify to bid. To be a world-class company with a world-class safety record requires an integrated approach to accident and injury prevention.

Challenges of an aging workforce

The Bureau of Labor Statistics projects that the labor force will increase by 12.8 million by 2020. The number of workers between ages 16 and 24 will decline 14%, and the number of workers ages 25 to 54 will increase by only 1.9%. The overall share of the labor force for 25- to 54-year-olds will decline from 68% to 65%. The number of workers 55 and older is projected to grow by 28%, or 5.5 times the rate of growth in the overall labor force.

Employers must recognize the challenge that an aging workforce will bring and begin to prepare their workforce for longer careers. A healthy and physically fit 55-year-old worker is more capable and less likely to be injured than a 35-year-old worker who is considered obese.

Treating chronic disease

Employers who want a healthy work force must recognize and treat chronic disease. Many companies have biometric testing programs (health risk assessments) and track healthcare expenditures through their various providers (brokers and insurance carriers).

The results are quite disappointing. On average, only 39% of employees participate in biometric screenings even when they are provided free of charge. For those employees who do participate and who are identified with high biometric risk (blood pressure, glucose, BMI, cholesterol), fewer than 20% treat or even manage these diseases.

This makes these employees much more susceptible to injury and significantly lengthens the disability period. The resulting financial impact on employers can be devastating.

Conclusion

Best-in-class safety results will require a combined approach to reduce injuries and to accommodate new classes of disability such as obesity. It is important that employers focus on improving the health and well-being of their workforce while creating well-developed job descriptions, identifying the essential functions, assessing physical assessments and designing job demands to fall within the declining capabilities of the American workers. It is important for an employer to only accept claims that arise out of the course and scope of employment. This is especially true with the reclassification of obesity as a disease. Baseline testing will play an essential role in separating work-related injuries from pre-existing conditions in this changing environment.

To Hellness With Wellness

It seems the only people made “well” from corporate wellness programs are those who collect $6 billion in annual costs. Still, all is not lost. If we use the most basic workings of human nature as a guide we can salvage a more reasonable realm for the notion of employer-sponsored “wellness.”

Corporate wellness is seriously flawed on the grand scale it once proclaimed. Here are four reasons why, in my opinion:

First: Wellness costs too much and thereby sets a high threshold for return on investment (ROI), which begs failure by any score based on savings. Let’s say you have a 500-person workforce. After a couple of years of “wellness,” 10 smokers legitimately quit for life, and five obese employees legitimately get to normal BMI and sustain it. For these individuals, the wellness program is an amazing success with great implications for future health. Unfortunately, with the average cost per employee in corporate wellness programs at more than $500 per year, two years costs more than $500,000, and a calculation of ROI depicts an abysmal failure.

Second: The profit motive of wellness purveyors supersedes common sense. Their sweeping approach provides incentives for assessments to identify candidates at risk and assumes that simple potential indicators of unhealthy lifestyle or other conditions create a savings opportunity. This is absolutely false. One fact is missing. Of the persons targeted, only a precious few are at a personal decision point and have the will to actually attempt difficult lifestyle changes.

Targeting must take human nature into account. We can properly diminish the presumed footprint of wellness if we look back and study individuals with actual historic success. Let us understand what indicators of personal human attitude that handful of successes gives us to use as a second-step screen. How much easier is it to realize ROI when only spending $500 per head on a smaller number of likely candidates?

Third: There is an absurd, blind thirst in both the private and public sectors to find believable reductions in projected future healthcare costs. The hype of wellness is perfectly suited to quench this thirst. Unfortunately, the absurdity is legitimized by governmental acceptance of the fool’s gold of claimed lower healthcare costs to gain leverage in negotiating state-worker union contracts, rigging budgets and passing federal legislation. (Can you spell ACA?) The term “fool’s gold” has the word “fool” in it for a reason.

Fourth: The wellness industry ignores lessons that should be learned from success in its sub-area of  disease management — specifically, that human nature feels no call to action until mortality comes knocking. Disease management savings can be documented in examples like the PepsiCo program called Healthy Living, initiated in 2003 and providing real savings today. Why does disease management work? In my opinion: People with a disease feel their mortality and are inclined to follow any program that might help.

Disease management supports a population with more personal incentive and will. Conversely, the debunked lifestyle approach targets an abundance of people who are personally happy while smoking or overeating. Fewer are suffering the acute implications of their lifestyle. “Wellness” money spent on them is useless.

Quick Tip: Trade “Big Wellness” for disease management with limited lifestyle programs

Don’t throw the baby out with the bathwater. There are many people who need and will accept disease management. As far as lifestyle, there are but a few people ready to commit to change. The good news is that over time, and organically with no cost, these few might spark an interest by others in any employer population. Keep the doors open for them and keep awareness high. In the meantime, don’t waste real money or use gimmicks on them.

I suggest wellness vendors create a new approach that unlocks the psychology of raw lifestyle change, targets the few and is willing to take on smaller footprints. Accept less money but stay for the longer haul.

You owe it to the tarnished notion of “wellness” to fix what you broke.

New AMA Classification Of Obesity: How It Affects Workers’ Compensation And Mandatory Reporting

On June 16, 2013, the American Medical Association voted to declare obesity a disease rather than a comorbidity factor. This change in classification will affect 78 million American Adults and 12 million children. The new status for obesity means that this is now considered a medical condition that requires treatment. In fact, a recent Duke University / RTI International / Centers for Disease Control and Prevention study estimates 42 percent of U.S. adults will become obese by 2030.

According to the Medical Dictionary, obesity has been defined as a weight at least 20% above the weight corresponding to the lowest death rate for individuals of a specific height, gender, and age (ideal weight). Twenty to forty percent over ideal weight is considered mildly obese; 40-100% over ideal weight is considered moderately obese; and 100% over ideal weight is considered severely, or morbidly, obese. More recent guidelines for obesity use a measurement called BMI (body mass index) which is the individual's weight divided by their height squared times 703. BMI over 30 is considered obese.

The World Health Organization further classifies BMIs of 30.00 or higher into one of three classes of obesity:

  • Obese class I = 30.00 to 34.99
  • Obese class II = 35.00 to 39.99
  • Obese class III = 40.00 or higher

People in obese class III are considered morbidly obese. According to a 2012 Gallup Poll, 3.6% of Americans were morbidly obese in 2012.

The decision to reclassify obesity gives doctors a greater obligation to discuss with patients their weight problem and how it's affecting their health while enabling them to get reimbursed to do so.

According to the Duke University study, obesity increases the healing times of fractures, strains and sprains, and complicates surgery. According to another Duke University study that looked at the records for work-related injuries:

  • Obese workers filed twice as many comp claims.
  • Obese workers had seven times higher medical costs.
  • Obese workers lost 13 times more days of work.
  • Body parts most prone to injury for obese individuals included lower extremities, wrists or hands, and the back. Most common injuries were slips and falls, and lifting.

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services said the costs to U.S. businesses related to obesity exceed $13 billion each year.

Furthermore, a 2011 Gallup survey found that obese employees account for a disproportionately high number of missed workdays. Also earlier National Council on Compensation Insurance (NCCI) research of workers' compensation claims found that claimants with a comorbidity code indicating obesity experience medical costs that are a multiple of what is observed for comparable non-obese claimants. The NCCI study demonstrated that claimants with a comorbidity factor indicating obesity had five times longer indemnity duration than claimants that were not identified as obese.

Prior to June 16, 2013, the ICD code for comorbidity factors for obesity in workers' was ICD-9 code 278. This is related to obesity-related medical complications, as opposed to the condition of obesity. Now the new ICD codes will indicate a disease, or condition of obesity which needs to be medically addressed. How will this affect work-related injuries?

Instead of obesity being a comorbitity issue, it can now become a secondary claim. If injured workers gain weight due to medications they are placed on as a result of their work-related injury or if an injured worker gains weight since they cannot exercise or keep fit because of their work-related injury and their BMI exceeds 30, they are considered obese and are eligible for medical industrially related treatment. In fact, the American Disability Act Amendment of 2008 allows for a broader scope of protection and the classification of obesity as a disease means that an employer needs to be cognizant that if someone has been treated for this disease for over 6 months then they would be considered protected under the American Disability Act Amendment.

Consider yet another factor: with the advent of Mandatory Reporting (January 1, 2011) by CMS that is triggered by the diagnosis (diagnosis code), the new medical condition of obesity will further make the responsible party liable for this condition and all related conditions for work-related injuries and General Liability claims with no statute of limitations. It is vital to understand that, as of January 1, 2011, Medicare has mandated all work-related and general liability injuries be reported to CMS in an electronic format. This means that CMS has the mechanism to look back and identify work comp related medical care payments made by Medicare. This is a retroactive statute and ultimately, it will be the employer and/or insurance carrier that will be held accountable.

The carrier or employer could pay the future medical cost twice — once to the claimant at settlement and later when Medicare seeks reimbursement of the medical care they paid on behalf of the claimant. This is outside the MSA criteria. The cost of this plus the impact of the workers' compensation costs as well as ADAA issues for reclassification of obesity for an employer and carrier are incalculable.

The solution is baseline testing so that only claims that arise out of the course and scope of employment (AOECOE) are accepted. If a work-related claim is not AOECOE and can be proved by objective medical evidence such as a pre- and post-assessment and there is no change from the baseline, then not only is there no workers' compensation claim, there is no OSHA-recordable claim, and no mandatory reporting issue.

A proven example of a baseline test for musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) cases is the EFA-STM program. EFA-STM Program begins by providing baseline injury testing for existing employees and new hires. The data is only interpreted when and if there is a soft tissue claim. After a claim, the injured worker is required to undergo the post-loss testing. The subsequent comparison objectively demonstrates whether or not an acute injury exists. If there is a change from the baseline site specific treatment, recommendations are made for the AOECOE condition ensuring that the injured worker receives the best care possible.

Baseline programs such as the EFA-STM ensure that the employee and employer are protected and take the sting out of the new classification by the AMA for obesity.