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Sensors and the Next Wave of IoT

Spies and “bugs” have made frequent appearances in movies, books and television. In the James Bond movie series, we see an array of devices that were designed for 007 by “Q.” In the 1997 movie, Tomorrow Never Dies, Bond’s BMW car and mobile phone provide the first glimpses of the potential of the Internet of Things (IoT). He remotely starts and drives the vehicle to escape the villains, while operating a number of built-in devices from the phone as the car views and senses issues. Q was always on the leading edge of new technology for Bond.

Fast forward 20 years, and we now have sensors and capabilities in so many things … in our appliances, automobiles, mobile phones and a host of common wearables. You may not think of these as “bugs,” but they are. They are mini- and micro-technology components employed to see, listen, learn, assess and respond. The only difference between today’s sensors and yesterday’s is that today’s sensors are infinitely better at reading and recording data — and they may be used for the common good.

To prove that they are still considered “bugs,” however, you only need to look at a bill introduced recently by U.S. Sens. Mark Warner (VA) and Cory Gardner (CO). The Internet of Things Cyber Security Improvement Act is aimed to protect the federal government from cyber intrusion through the Internet of Things. Their bill raises a great point — sensors need built-in security measures that will allow for the good features to be used without introducing new risks.

See also: Insurance and the Internet of Things  

Good Bugs Eat Risk

In the insurance industry, we understand the implications of sensors and their ability to lower risk. “Bugs” and sensors are now our best friends. In our Future Trends 2017: The Shift Gains Momentum report, we examined how IoT experimentation and implementation is reaching into every area of insurance. Here is a short list of innovative ideas introduced by early adopters of IoT in insurance:

  • Progressive, via the Snapshot usage-based-insurance telematics offering, monitored how customers drove using an OBD plug-in device from Zubie.
  • Liberty Mutual partnered with Google to use NEST connected smoke alarms in the home to help customers reduce fire risk and carbon monoxide poisoning while also reducing their homeowners insurance premium.
  • Beam Dental began pricing dental insurance based on smart toothbrush usage data.
  • John Hancock used wearable devices to track the well-being of customers, lowering life insurance premiums and offering an incentive program through Vitality to shop for an array of things.
  • Oscar, a health insurance startup, used wearable fitness trackers and a mobile app to help track and encourage members to be fit, find doctors, access health history, access the doctor on call and connect to Apple Health.

In addition to the last two examples above, companies are using wearable devices and the data generated from them to better assess individuals for healthcare, life insurance, workers compensation and investment rewards based on their activity and lifestyle. Innovative insurers are using wearables to provide improved underwriting discounts, rewards, claims monitoring and new services using real-time data. The new services can include advice on healthy living, real-time healthcare and prevention, real-time monitoring and assistance in treatment or recovery plans and determining return to work timeframes for injuries or other health-related incidents. These all contribute to enhanced customer experiences, longer customer lives and improved insurer investment options.

There’s No Limit to Sensor Growth

This rapid experimentation and use of IoT isn’t just limited to wearables, telematics and smoke detectors. Sensors of all kinds are being born into healthcare environments, construction sites, commercial buildings, roads and bridges, homes and cars.

  • By 2025, the Internet of Things will be worth trillions annually.
  • Connected homes will grow rapidly by 30% per year in the U.S. alone, where 22% of households now have at least one connected device.
  • The wearable device market is expected to more than double over the next five years.

Sensors Should Reduce Claims

With the proliferation of companies innovating and taking new offerings to market using IoT, we are seeing the beginning of a huge boom in insurers using IoT to drive an engaging customer experience through personalized insurance offerings, reduced costs and new value-added services. The Boston Consulting Group estimated that U.S. insurers could reduce annual claims by 40% to 60% with real-time IoT. The key is that insurers will be able to move from paying claims to mitigating or eliminating risk by engaging with customers via IoT devices while also enhancing the customer experience.

What’s Next for the IoT? Better bugs?

Though so much remains uncertain and untested, we should expect to see a rapid evolution of technologies to sort out which sensors are most valuable in which locations and just how IoT can bring cost-effective monitoring to market.

For example, P&C insurers were quick to pick up on OBD technology, with installed devices in vehicles. In many cases, mobile phone monitoring soon became a more cost-effective solution. Most smart phones have GPS capability and an accelerometer. And now automotive manufacturers are embedding sensors and telematics in vehicles to enhance safety and position themselves toward autonomous driving vehicles – just like Bond.

As some wearable technologies are dropping out of the running, life and health insurers will soon be taking advantage of advancements in smart watch design. The first wave of wearables looked like digital tech devices with touchscreens and LED displays. The next wave is the introduction of smart tech into “normal”-looking watches from standard manufacturers like Movado, Tag Heuer, Fossil and Tommy Hilfiger. Android Wear technology will be feeding the data. These would be much more like Q would have designed, and they will undoubtedly be worn by many who wouldn’t normally use an Apple Watch or a FitBit.

A similar technology wave is beginning to hit homes. Currently, sensors are in use in some thermostats, appliances, lighting systems, security systems, computer and gaming devices. But one of the drawbacks to having so many sensors is that most companies haven’t networked all of them to a single IoT data framework. This hinders the ability to aggregate the data across sensors, limiting the potential value. Every new data point requires a new type of sensor. As with OBD devices, attaching a sensor to everything may even become non-essential, in favor of one centrally located device with multiple sensors.

PhD students at Carnegie Mellon University have been developing a plug-in sensor package they call a “Synthetic Sensor.” Plug it into an outlet, and that room is immediately a smart room. Instead of a smart sensor on every item in the room, multiple sensors in the device track many items, people and safety concerns at once. The device can detect if anything seems to be “wrong” when appliances are in use by analyzing machine vibrations. And, of course, it can track usage patterns. The sensor can even track things insurers may not need to know, like how many paper towels are still left on a roll.

See also: How the ‘Internet of Things’ Affects Strategic Planning  

So, would P&C insurers like to be connected to the water heater thermometer, or have access to a device that can hear pops and leaks? Would L&A insurers like to know the lifestyle and behaviors of their customers to encourage healthy living?  Much of this will be sorted out in the coming years.

What doesn’t need to be sorted out is that insurers will want access to device data – and they will pay for it. They will need to be running systems that will readily hold the data, analyze it and use it effectively. Cloud storage of device data and even cloud analytics will play a tremendous role in giving value to IoT data streams.

IoT advancements are exciting! They hold promise for insurers, and they certainly will make many of our environments safer and smarter.

population health

A New Dimension in Population Health

With the healthcare landscape changing from fee-for-service to fee-for-value models, healthcare provider systems (hospitals, clinics, independent physician associations, etc.) are now, more than ever, under pressure to effectively manage the health and cost outcomes of their given populations. Under such models, providers are not only providing healthcare service to the patients, but they are also sharing in the financial risk and reward of patient costs. To effectively become a value-based organization, providers today are adopting a process broadly termed “population health.”

The “population health” process usually starts with identifying key segments of a population that face certain risks of adverse health outcomes and thereby high cost — a step known as “risk stratification.” Once risk is stratified, appropriate patient intervention programs are employed to improve: access to health, targeted encounters with providers and continuous monitoring of patient risk. This leads to lower emergency room visits, better clinical outcomes (such as properly managed blood glucose levels for diabetics) and lower financial cost.

There are many proven methods of risk-stratification to assign patients to low-, medium- or high-risk groups. For example, the adjusted clinical groups method examines patient diagnoses, and the elder risk assessment method assigns risk based on patient demographics. In today’s market, we observe many proprietary methods of risk stratification developed by various provider systems. The variables used in risk stratification can be classified into the following categories:

  1. Clinical: Data from electronic medical records (EMRs), patient vitals, laboratory data, etc.
  2. Administrative: Usually patient claims that track diagnosis and procedures already conducted
  3. Socio-Economic: Patients’ social situations, family and friend support systems, language preference, community involvement, the degree of influence that out-of-pocket expenses could have on the patient’s well-being, etc.
  4. Lifestyle: Health and activity tracking devices such as Fitbit, Apple Watch, etc., which carry critical daily lifestyle data about a patient

While the above categories play a large role in risk stratification, a new dimension known as “spatial access” can significantly lend leverage to the provider systems in affecting patient outcomes. For some patients, the overall risk may increase significantly because of their spatial, geographical and transportation access to medical and wellness resources. Spatial access refers to patients’ geographic proximity and ease of mobility to resources such as hospitals, primary care physician offices, primary and specialty care clinics and nurses. The geographic arrangement of patient and provider resources can play a significant role in healthcare utilization. For example, patients living in areas with fewer healthcare resources — regions often termed “doctor deserts” — have been linked with higher rates of preventable ER visits that are notorious for raising healthcare costs without necessarily improving healthcare outcomes. Using geographical and spatial analysis to supplement existing risk stratification techniques can help providers with an untapped method of assessing risk and generating better ROI in the long run.

To incorporate spatial access analysis into risk stratification, providers must:

  1. Gather patients’ social network geographic information
    Most EMR systems already contain patient address information, but they often lack information about the patients’ social network. The following types of data should be collected and refreshed on an annual basis:

    • Distance to closest primary care clinic, both straight-line and network-distance;
    • Distance to closest primary care provider, both straight-line and network-distance;
    • Spatial density of medical resources in a given area, especially primary care services;
    • Access to vehicle transportation, either on the patient’s own or through a family member; and
    • Proximity to public transportation.
  2. Conduct “spatial access” risk stratification
    Using a geographic information system (GIS), assign relative risk to each patient based on each of the components listed above, then create a composite risk based on all of the attributes.
  3. Represent population risk stratification visually via mapping
    Examine which areas of a provider’s service areas are prone to having individuals with high risk; look for clusters of high- or low-risk patients in doctor deserts. Viewing individual or aggregate risk through mapping would offer analysts and decision makers a comprehensive view of what types of risk are occurring in their service area.
  4. Strategize how to implement interventions based on locations of high-risk patients
    If clusters of high-risk patients exist in a certain area, begin to strategize about what kinds of interventions may alleviate the problem. Interventions may include the placement of new primary or specialty care clinics. Because creating clinics can be challenging, increased use of mobile provider teams can be an alternate solution. Lastly, a combination of telemedicine and mobile medicine should be assessed for the right mix of care for doctor deserts and lack of physical clinics.

Understanding the spatial context of patient demand vs. provider supply of healthcare service is an important component for accountable care organizations to conduct accurate risk stratification. Moreover, incorporating GIS into healthcare service analyses improves decision-making capabilities for evaluating, planning and implementing strategic initiatives. By taking advantage of the analytic capabilities of GIS and spatial access risk stratification, healthcare service providers are better equipped to more comprehensively understand their patient population and to thrive in this new value-based world.

Why I’m Skeptical on Apple’s Future

Facebook is releasing its virtual reality headset, Oculus. It is big, clunky and expensive, and it will cause nausea and other problems for its users. Within a few months of its release, we will declare our disappointment with virtual reality while Facebook will carefully listen to its users and develop improvements. Version No. 3 of Oculus, which will, most likely, come in 2018 or 2019, will be amazing. It will change the way we interact with each other on social media and take us into new worlds—much like the holodecks we saw in “Star Trek.”

This is how innovation happens now, innovation and elsewhere. You release a basic product and let the market tell you how to make it better. There is no time to get it perfect; your product may become obsolete before it is even released.

Apple has not figured this out yet. It maintains a fortress of secrecy, and its leaders dictate product features. When it releases a new technology, it goes to extremes to ensure elegant design and perfection. Steve Jobs was a true visionary, but he refused to listen to customers—believing he knew what they needed better than they did. He ruled with an iron fist and did not tolerate dissent of any type. At Apple, people in one division did not know what others in the company were developing.

Seven announcements Apple made in the March keynote

Jobs’ tactics worked very well for him, and he created the most valuable company in the world. But without Jobs, given the dramatic technology changes that are happening, Apple may have peaked. It is headed the way of IBM in the ’90s and Microsoft in the late 2000s. Consider that Apple’s last major innovation—the iPhone—was released in June 2007.

See Also: Apple v. FBI: Inevitable Conflicts on Tech

Since then, Apple has been tweaking its componentry, adding faster processors and more advanced sensors and releasing bigger and smaller forms—such as with the iPad and the Apple Watch. Even the announcements Apple made this month were uninspiring: smaller iPhones and iPads. All Apple seems to be doing is playing catch up with Samsung, which offers tablets and phones of many sizes and has better features. Apple has been also been copying products (such as Google Maps) but not doing it very well.

There was a time when technology enthusiasts like me felt compelled to buy every new product Apple released. We applauded every small, new feature and pretended it was revolutionary. We watched Steve Jobs’ product announcements with bated breath. However, now I would not even have bought the iPhone a few months ago unless T-Mobile included a large rebate to switch networks. There is nothing earth-shattering or compelling about Apple’s new phones—or, for that matter, any of the products it has released since 2007.

By now, Apple should have released some of the products we have heard rumors about: TV sets, virtual reality headsets and cars. Apple could also have added the functionality of products, such as Leap Motion and Kinect, with the iPhone functioning as a Minority Report motion detector and projector. Apple should be doing what Facebook is doing: putting out new products and letting the market judge them. And Apple should be doing moonshots like Google, which is toying with self-driving cars; Internet delivery via balloon, drone and microsatellite; and Google Glass. Yes, Apple might have failed with the first version—just as Google did with Glass—but that is simply a learning experience. The third version of Google Glass is also likely to be a killer product.

Instead of innovating, Apple has been launching frivolous lawsuits against competitors like Samsung. My colleague at Stanford Law School, Mark Lemley, estimated Apple had spent more than $1 billion in attorney and expert fees in its battle against Samsung. And this lawsuit netted Apple just $158,400, which, ironically, went to Samsung. Apple could have better spent its money on the acquisitions of companies that would give it a real edge.

Will Apple release some products later this year that will blow us away? I am skeptical. I expect we will only see more hype and more repackaging of tired old technologies.

Join Vivek Wadhwa for the Path To Transformation Symposium by registering here.

Insurance Disrupted: Silicon Valley’s Map

With $5 trillion in premiums, an incredibly low level of customer satisfaction, aging infrastructures, an analytically based, high-volume business model and a “wait until we have to” approach to innovation, insurance is now fully in the sights of the most disruptively innovative engine on the planet, Silicon Valley. The tipping point for insurance is here.

More than 75 digitally born companies in Silicon Valley, including Google and Apple, are redefining the rules and the infrastructure of the insurance industry.

Inside the Insurance Tipping Point – Silicon Valley | 2016

It’s one thing to listen to all of the analysts talk about the digitization of insurance and the disruptive changes it will bring. It’s quite another to immerse yourself in the amazing array of companies, technologies and trends driving those changes. This post is the first of a series that will give you an inside look at the visions, culture and disruptive innovation accelerating the digital tipping point for insurance and the opportunities that creates for companies bold enough to become part of it. (Join us at #insdisrupt.)

Venture firms are catalysts for much of Silicon Valley’s innovation, and insurance has their attention. Frank Chen of Andreessen Horowitz sees software as rewriting the insurance industry, AXA insurance has established an investment and innovation presence here. Others, including Lightspeed VenturesRibbit Capital and AutoTech Ventures, are investing in data and analytics, new insurance distribution plays and other technologies that will change the shape of insurance.

New business models: MetromileZenefitsStride HealthCollective HealthClimate Corp., Trov and Sureify, are using technologies to redefine and personalize insurance and the experience customers have with it.

Rise of the Digital Ecosystem – Expanding the Boundaries of Insurance

Digital ecosystems are innovation catalysts and accelerators with power to reshape industry value chains and the world economy. They dramatically expand the boundaries within which insurance can create value for customers and increase the corners from which new competitors can emerge.

Silicon Valley is home to companies acutely aware of how to establish themselves as a dominant and disruptive platform within digital ecosystems. That includes Google, which is investing heavily in the automobile space with Google Compare and self-driving vehicles and has acquired Nest as an anchor in the P&C/smart homes market. Fitbit is already establishing health insurance partnerships. And let’s not forget Apple. The Apple Watch already has insurance-related partners. Apple has clear plans for the smart home market and has recently launched AutoPlay, its anchor entry into the auto market. There are rumors that Apple plans to develop an iCar. And that’s just what we know about.

There are a host of other companies placing digital ecosystem bets in Silicon Valley, as well: GE, which is driving the Industrial Internet of Things; Parstream, with an analytic platform built for IoT; the IoT consortiumJawboneEvidation HealthMisfit Wearablesicontrol NetworkGM and its advanced technology labcarvi; and DriveFactor, now part of CCC Information Services.

Then there are the robotics companies, including 3D robotics, the RoboBrain project at Stanford University and Silicon Valley Robotics, an association of makers.

Customer Engagement and Experience – New Digital Rules, New Digital Playbook.

When your customer satisfaction and trust is one of the lowest in the world and companies like Apple and Google enter your market place, it’s really time to pay attention. There is a customer value-creation and design led innovation culture in the valley unrivaled in the world, and the technology to back it up. Companies like Genesys, and Vlocity are working on perfecting the omni channel expereince. Hearsaysocial and, declara, are working on next gen social media to help customers and the insurance industry create better relationships. Many of the next generation of insurance products will be context aware, opening the door to new ways of reaching and supporting customers. Companies like mCube and Ejenta, are working to provide sensor based insight and the analytics to act on it. TrunomiBeyond the Ark, and DataSkill via cognitive intelligence are developing new innovative ways to use data & analytics to better understand and engage customers. Lifestyle based insurance models are being launched like Adventure Adovcates and Givesurance, And some of digital marketing automation’s most innovative new players like Marketo, and even Oracle’s Eloqua are rewriting and enabling a new digital generation of marketing best practices.

Big Data and Analytics – Integrated Strategies for the New “Digital” Insurance Company

The techno buzz says big data and analytics are going to affect every business and every business operation. When you are a data- and analytics-driven industry like insurance that deals with massive amounts of policies and transactions, that buzz isn’t hype, it’s a promise.

The thing about big data and analytics is that when they are used in operational silos, they provide a tactical advantage. But when a common interoperable vision and roadmap are established, analytics create a huge strategic advantage. That knowledge and the capability to act on it is built into the DNA of “born digital” entries into the insurance market like Google.

The number of companies working on big data and analytics within the valley is staggering. We have already discussed a few in the Customer Engagement section above. Here are a few more, In the area of risk: RMS is building its stable of talent in the big data spaceActian is delivering lightning-fast Hadoop analytics; Metabiota is providing epidemic disease threat assessments; and Orbital Insights is providing geo-based image analysis. In the areas of claims and fraud, PalantirScoreDataTyche and SAS are adding powerful capabilities for insurance. Improved operational effectiveness is being delivered by Saama Technology, with an integrated insurance analytics suite; by Prevedere, with data-driven predictive analytics; by Volumetrix, with people analytics; and by Sparkling Logic, which helps drive faster and more effective decision making.

Insurance Digitized | Next Generation Core Systems

With insurance boundaries expanding, integration with digital ecosystems, increasing reliance on analytics and the demand for personalized and contextualized outcome- and services-based insurance models, core systems will have huge new sets of requirements placed on them. The requirement for interoperability between systems and data and analytics will grow dramatically.

Companies like GuidewireISCS and SAP are building a new generation of cloud-based systems. Scoredata and Pokitdoc are bringing new capabilities to claims. SplunkSymantec and FireEye are addressing emergent cyber risks. And companies like Automation EverywhereOcculus RiffSuitable Technologies and Humanyze are enabling the digitally blended and augmented workforce.

The latest investment wave includes artificial intelligence, deep learning and machine learning, which core systems will need to incorporate.

Surviving the Tipping Point – Becoming One of the Disruptive Leaders

This is a small sampling of the technologies, trends and companies just within Silicon Valley that are shaping the digital future of insurance. The changes these will drive are massive, and they are only the tip of the iceberg.

An Insurance Tech meetup group open to all the insurance-related companies within Silicon Valley was just announced by Guillaume Cabrere, CEO of AXA Labs, and already has 64 members. For established companies to survive the tipping point and thrive on the other side of it requires more than handing “digital transformation” off to the CIO or marketing team. Success requires a C-Suite that has become an integral part of the community and culture building the digital generation of insurance companies.

For technology companies and next-generation insurance companies, success requires building partnerships with established and emerging players.

This blog series is designed to inform and accelerate that dialog and partnering formation. It will include a series of interviews with disruptive leaders from industry and Silicon Valley. If you or your company would like to be a part of that series, please let me know.

Join us for the next Insurance Disrupted Conference – March 22-23, 2016 l Silicon Valley

svia

ITL readers receive a 15% discount when registering here.

Pros and Cons of ApplePay Security

ApplePay, the mobile payments service introduced by Apple in October 2014, could ultimately set the security and privacy benchmarks for digital wallets much higher.

Even so, the hunt for security holes and privacy gaps in Apple’s new digital wallet has commenced. It won’t take long for both white hat researchers and well-funded criminal hackers to uncover weaknesses that neither Apple nor its banking industry partners thought of.

Here’s ThirdCertainty’s breakdown of the security and privacy issues stirred by Apple’s bold move into the digital wallet business.

ApplePay defined

Available on the iPhone 6 and Apple Watch, ApplePay stores account numbers on a dedicated chip. Apple refers to this chip as the “secure element” only available n the iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 plus. It is on this chip that your financial information is stored. It is only accessed when a random 16-digit number gets generated for a given transaction, and the number never makes it to the phone’s software, where hackers could reach it.

The devices then use near field communication (NFC) to send a simple token, instead of the full account number, to the merchant’s NFC-enabled point-of-sale register.

“This allows an ultra secure payment,” says Anthony Antolino, business development officer at Eyelock, a biometrics technology vendor. “The only remaining concern is keeping the smart phone under your control.”

Apple tightens down who can control each device by integrating itsTouch ID fingerprint scanner and its Passbook ticket-buying app into ApplePay. This new approach keeps personal information on the device – instead of moving account data into storage servers within easy reach of thieves. The hacks of big merchants in the U.S. and Europe, including Home Depot, Target, P.F. Chang’s and Neiman Marcus, show how adept data thieves have become at attacking stored data.

How ApplePay improves security

ApplePay validates a “data-centric security model,” argues Mark Bower, product management vice president at Voltage Security.

“The payments world needs to move on from vulnerable static credit card numbers and magnetic stripes to protected versions of data,” Bower says. “Tokenized payments reduce the risk of data breaches and credit card theft.”

Mathew Rowley, technical director at security consultancy NCC Group, observes that the U.S. payment card industry continues to require minimal security checks in authorizing credit and debit card purchases.

“Things like chip-and-PIN and two-factor credit cards have been implemented in other countries, but the U.S. seems to be behind the curve,” Rowley says. “Any additional logic built into the process of making payments will make it more secure.”

How ApplePay introduces new risks

Adding a mobile wallet function to the latest iPhone gives criminal hackers more incentive and opportunity to find fresh vulnerabilities, says Mike Park, managing consultant at Trustwave.

“Any new additions and functionality to a platform, even ones meant to enhance security, can expand the attack surface,” Park says. “With the introduction of this type of functionality into a platform, this makes every device a possible target.”

The more popular ApplePay becomes, the more likely cybercriminals will devote resources to cracking in. Research from legit sources already is available showing how to hack into NFC systems — for instance this 2012 report from Accuvant reseacher Charlie Miller.

It’s probable that elite criminal hackers “are looking to steal identities and mass harvest payment card information as they do in other platforms and verticals now,” Park says.

One simple crime would be to target Apple devices for physical theft. Another is to figure out how to remotely access and manipulate ApplePay accounts. “The weakest link is the consumer,” says Alisdair Faulkner, chief products officer at ThreatMetrix. “And ultimately a web page with a username and login, like iCloud, now has an unprecedented amount of information about you backed up into the cloud.”

Pushing payments to mobile devices makes Internet cloud services more complex – and complexity creates vulnerabilities.

“In the past, the only participants were the merchant, the merchant’s bank and your personal bank,” says Richard Moulds, vice president of product strategy at Thales e-Security. “Apple is stating that they will not know the details of individual transactions, which is very important; however, there is clearly the risk of attacks on the phone itself.”